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Fiber Optic Tutorials

 

Scanners

This is continuation from the previous tutorial - Reflective and catadioptric objectives     1. INTRODUCTION This chapter provides an overview of optical scanning techniques in context with their operational requirements. System objectives determine the characteristics of the scanner which, in turn, influence adjacent system elements. For example, the desired resolution, format, and data rate determine the scanner aperture size, scan angle, and speed, which then influence the associated optics. The purpose of this chapter is to review the diverse options for optical scanning and to provide insight to associated topics , such as scanned resolution and the reduction of spatial errors....

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Multimode, Large-Core, and Plastic Clad (PCS) Fibers

This is a continuation from the previous tutorial - Elliptical core and D-shape Fibers     1. INTRODUCTION After years of playing ensemble roles, large-core multimode fiber has stepped into the spotlight of fiber optic technology and innovation. From the smallest of veins in the human body, to the vastness of the universe, when the need for every photon matters, the advantages of large-core \((>200\) \(\text{micron})\) multimode specialty fibers are taking the lead. As the name implies, multimode fibers are those types of fibers designed to carry multiple rays of light or modes. There are two types of multimode fibers:...

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REAL-TIME IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH-SPEED DIGITAL COHERENT TRANSCEIVERS

This is a continuation from the previous tutorial - Carrier recovery in coherent optical communication systems     1.  ALGORITHM CONSTRAINTS Coherent optical transmission systems at 100 Gb/s use baud rates of 28 Gbaud or beyond, with the receiver \(\text{ADCs}\) usually using two times oversampling, that is 56 Gs/s and beyond, to convert the received signals from the analog to the digital domain. Standard cell logic in modern complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor \(\text{(CMOS)}\) technology cannot operate at this high sampling rate of the \(\text{ADCs}\). The preferred clock speed for standard logic is usually in the range of a few hundred megahertz, which means...

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WAVE OPTICS AND GAUSSIAN BEAMS

This is a continuation from the previous tutorial - RAY OPTICS AND RAY MATRICES   A more accurate treatment of optical beams and laser resonators must take into account diffraction and the wave nature of light. Practical laser beams are almost always well enough collimated even under worst conditions, however, that we can describe their diffraction properties using a scalar wave theory, and working in the paraxial wave approximation. In this tutorial, therefore, we introduce the paraxial wave analysis and the equivalent Huygens-Fresnel integral approach for optical beams in free space. We also introduce the lowest and higher-order gaussian mode solutions...

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Reflective and catadioptric objectives

This is continuation from the previous tutorial - Microscopes   1. INTRODUCTION During the initial stages of an optical design, many optical engineers take advantage of existing configurations that exhibit useful properties. This tutorial is a compilation of reflective and catadioptric objective designs that should help inform the reader of available choices and provide reasonable starting solutions. This tutorial also includes a cursory introduction to some of the more important topics in system analysis, such as angular and linear blur size, image irradiance, scaling, and stray light control.     2. GLASS VARIETIES Glasses used in the designs are represented in...

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