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FTTX Concepts and Applications
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FTTX Concepts and Applications

Light Brigade Part No.: TLB-W-28

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This book presents fundamental passive optical network (PON) concepts, providing you with the tools needed to understand, design, and build these new access networks. The logical sequence of topics begins with the underlying principles and components of optical fiber communication technologies used in access networks. Next, the book progresses from descriptions of PON and fiber-to-the-X (FTTX) alternatives to their application to fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) networks and, lastly, to essential measurement and testing procedures for network installation and maintenance.

An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

About The Aurthor

Gerd Keiser is founder and president of PhotonicsComm Solutions, Inc., a firm specializing in consulting and education for the optical communications industry. (Visit www.PhotonicsComm.com.) He had extensive experience at Honeywell, GTE, and General Dynamics in optical networking technology for telecom-muni-cations applications, has served as Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering at Northeastern University and Tufts University, and is a Fellow of the IEEE. The author of McGraw-Hills Optical Fiber Communications and Local Area Networks, he is also an Associate Editor of the technical journal Optical Fiber Technology. His popular books have been translated into Chinese, Japanese, and Italian.

Table of Contents

Preface.

Chapter 1 Access Technologies.

1.1 General Network Concepts.

1.1.1 Network Architecture Concepts.

1.1.2 Types of Networks.

1.1.3 Network Terminology.

1.1.4 First-Mile Concept.

1.1.5 Network Market Opportunities.

1.1.6 Terminology for Premises.

1.2 Comparison of Access Technologies.

1.2.1 Hybrid FiberCoax.

1.2.2 Digital Subscriber Line.

1.2.3 WiMAX.

1.3 Passive Optical Networks.

1.3.1 Basic PON Architectures.

1.3.2 What Is FTTx

1.4 Point-to-Point Links.

1.5 summary.

Further Reading.

Chapter 2 Optical Communications Essentials.

2.1 Definitions of Units and Terms.

2.1.1 Metric Prefixes.

2.1.2 Electromagnetic Spectral Bands.

2.1.3 Optical Spectral Band.

2.1.4 Digital Multiplexing Hierarchy.

2.1.5 Decibel Units.

2.1.6 Refractive Index.

2.2 Elements of an Optical Link.

2.3 Optical Fibers.

2.3.1 Fiber Structures.

2.3.2 Rays and Modes.

2.4 Optical Fiber Attenuation.

2.5 Fiber Information Capacity.

2.5.1 Modal Dispersion.

2.5.2 Chromatic Dispersion.

2.5.3 Polarization Mode Dispersion.

2.6 Nonlinear Effects in Fibers.

2.6.1 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering.

2.6.2 Stimulated Raman Scattering.

2.7 Optical Fiber Standards.

2.8 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Chapter 3 Wavelength-Division Multiplexing.

3.1 Operational Principles of WDM.

3.1.1 WDM Operating Regions.

3.1.2 Generic WDM Link.

3.2 Standard WDM Spectral Grids.

3.2.1 Dense WDM.

3.2.2 Coarse WDM.

3.2.3 PON Spectral Regions.

3.3 Optical Couplers.

3.3.1 Basic 22 Coupler.

3.3.2 Coupler Performance.

3.3.3 Tap Coupler.

3.4 Bidirectional WDM Links.

3.5 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Chapter 4 PON Transceivers.

4.1 Optical Sources for PONs.

4.1.1 Source Characteristics.

4.1.2 DFB and FP Lasers.

4.1.3 Modulation Speed.

4.1.4 Optical Transmitter Packages.

4.2 Optical Receivers.

4.2.1 Photodetector Types.

4.2.2 Quantum Efficiency.

4.2.3 Responsivity.

4.2.4 Speed of Detector Response.

4.2.5 Receiver Bandwidth.

4.2.6 Photodetector Noise.

4.3 Receiver BER and OSNR.

4.4 Burst-Mode Receiver Concept.

4.5 Burst-Mode ONT Transmission.

4.6 PON Transceiver Packages.

4.7 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Chapter 5 Passive Optical Components.

5.1 WDM Couplers for PONs.

5.1.1 Thin-Film Filters.

5.1.2 Transmission Diffraction Gratings.

5.2 Optical Power Splitter.

5.2.1 Splitting Loss.

5.2.2 Optical Splitter Structure.

5.3 Optical Cables for PONs.

5.3.1 Cable Structures.

5.3.2 Fiber and Jacket Color Coding.

5.4 Fiber Interconnections.

5.4.1 Optical Connectors.

5.4.2 Connector Losses.

5.4.3 Optical Splices.

5.5 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Chapter 6 Passive Optical Networks.

6.1 Fundamental PON Architecture.

6.2 Active PON Modules.

6.2.1 Optical Line Terminal.

6.2.2 Optical Network Terminal.

6.2.3 Optical Network Unit.

6.3 Traffic Flows.

6.4 Passive Component Applications.

6.4.1 Optical Cables for PONs.

6.4.2 Optical Power Splitters.

6.4.3 Splitter Enclosures.

6.4.4 Wavelength Couplers.

6.5 PON Alternatives.

6.5.1 BPON Basics.

6.5.2 EPON and EFM.

6.5.3 GPON Basics.

6.6 Optics Path Attenuation Ranges.

6.7 Standards Development.

6.7.1 ITU-T.

6.7.2 FSAN.

6.7.3 IEEE.

6.8 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Chapter 7 BPON Characteristics.

7.1 BPON Architecture.

7.1.1 Traffic Flow Schemes.

7.1.2 OLT Capabilities.

7.2 ATM Basics.

7.2.1 Use of ATM Cells.

7.2.2 ATM Service Categories.

7.2.3 Service Level Agreements.

7.3 BPON Operational Characteristics.

7.3.1 Voice and Data Traffic Flows.

7.3.2 Protection of Grants.

7.3.3 Video Traffic.

7.4 Traffic Control.

7.4.1 Fixed Bandwidth Allocation.

7.4.2 Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation.

7.5 Standards Details.

7.5.1 Recommendation G.983.1.

7.5.2 Recommendation G.983.2.

7.5.3 Recommendation G.983.3.

7.5.4 Recommendation G.983.4.

7.5.5 Recommendation G.983.5.

7.5.6 Recommendation G.983.6.

7.5.7 Recommendation G.983.7.

7.5.8 Recommendation G.983.8.

7.6 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Chapter 8 Ethernet in the First Mile.

8.1 EFM Options.

8.2 EPON Architecture.

8.2.1 OLT and ONT/ONU Functions.

8.2.2 EPON Traffic Flows.

8.2.3 Power Levels Received.

8.3 MPCP Functions.

8.3.1 Discovery Process.

8.3.2 Bandwidth Assignment.

8.3.3 Transmission Timing.

8.4 Point-to-Point Ethernet.

8.4.1 P2P Ethernet Over Fiber.

8.4.2 P2P Ethernet Over Copper.

8.5 Main EPON and P2P EFM Standards.

8.6 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Chapter 9 GPON Characteristics.

9.1 GPON Architecture.

9.1.1 GSR Specification.

9.1.2 GPON Protection Switching.

9.1.3 Information Security in a GPON.

9.2 GPON Recommendation G.984.2.

9.2.1 Optical Performances.

9.2.2 Timing and Optical Power Control.

9.2.3 Forward Error Correction.

9.3 GPON Transmission Convergence Layer.

9.3.1 Downstream GPON Frame Format.

9.3.2 Upstream GPON Frame Format.

9.3.3 GEM Segment.

9.4 ONT Management and Control.

9.5 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Chapter 10 FTTP Concepts and Applications.

10.1 Implementation Scenarios.

10.1.1 Application Alternatives.

10.1.2 Installation Types.

10.2 Network Architectures.

10.2.1 Optical Splitter Locations.

10.2.2 Network Design Variations.

10.3 Local Powering Options.

10.3.1 Indoor Power Supply.

10.3.2 Outdoor Power Supply.

10.3.3 Network Powering.

10.4 Service Applications.

10.4.1 Bandwidth Requirements.

10.4.2 Video Service Issues.

10.5 Expanded WDM PON.

10.6 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Chapter 11 FTTP Network Design.

11.1 Design Criteria.

11.1.1 System Requirements.

11.1.2 System Margin.

11.1.3 Power Penalties.

11.2 Link Power Budget.

11.2.1 Power-Budgeting Process.

11.2.2 FTTP 1310-nm Power Budget.

11.2.3 FTTP 1490-nm Power Budget.

11.3 Photonic Design Automation Tools.

11.3.1 Modeling Tool Characteristics.

11.3.2 FTTP Network Modeling Tool.

11.4 Link Capacity Estimates.

11.4.1 Basic Formulation.

11.4.2 Basic Rise Times.

11.4.3 FTTP Link Rise Time.

11.5 Network Protection Schemes.

11.6 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Chapter 12 FTTP Network Implementations.

12.1 Central Office Configuration.

12.1.1 Service Inputs to the FTTP Network.

12.1.2 Cable Layout and Interfaces.

12.1.3 WDM Coupler Placement.

12.1.4 Patch Cords and Intrafacility Cables.

12.2 Feeder Cables.

12.2.1 Feeder Cable Structures.

12.2.2 OSP Distribution Cabinet.

12.3 Distribution Section.

12.4 Installation of PON Cables.

12.4.1 Direct-Burial Installations.

12.4.2 Horizontal Drilling.

12.4.3 Pulling Cable into Ducts.

12.4.4 Cable Jetting Installation.

12.4.5 Aerial Installation.

12.4.6 Cable Warning and Identification Markers.

12.5 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Chapter 13 Network Installation Testing.

13.1 International Measurement Standards.

13.2 Basic Test Instræments.

13.3 Optical Power Measurements.

13.3.1 Definition of Optical Power.

13.3.2 Optical Power Meter.

13.3.3 Power Meter Applications.

13.4 Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer.

13.4.1 OTDR Trace.

13.4.2 OTDR Dead Zone.

13.4.3 Fiber Fault Location.

13.5 Optical Return Loss.

13.6 Visual Fault Locator.

13.7 Optical-Loss Test Set.

13.8 Multifunction Test Instræment.

13.9 Device Conformance Testing.

13.10 FTTP Network Testing.

13.10.1 Checking Individual Link Losses.

13.10.2 Optical-Loss Budget Check.

13.10.3 End-to-End Link Characterization.

13.10.4 ORL Measurements.

13.10.5 OLT and Video Output Checks.

13.10.6 ONT Output Check.

13.11 FTTP Network Troubleshooting.

13.11.1 Resolutions of Network Problems.

13.11.2 Troubleshooting Guidelines.

13.12 summary.

Problems.

References and Further Reading.

Chapter 14 Network Management Functions.

14.1 Basic Network Management.

14.2 Management Functions.

14.2.1 Performance Management.

14.2.2 Configuration Management.

14.2.3 Accounting Management.

14.2.4 Fault Management.

14.2.5 Security Management.

14.3 OAM&P in FTTP Networks.

14.4 summary.

Problems.

Further Reading.

Appendix A Units, Physical Constants, and Conversion Factors.

Appendix B Acronyms.

Appendix C Video Transmission.

Appendix D Communication Signals.

Appendix E Telcordia Generic Requirements for PON Applications.

Index.

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