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Training Videos


Phase Velocity and Group Velocity

Superposition of Light Waves When we analyze the resultant of two or more simple harmonic vibrations (monochrome light waves), we usually can treat it as the simple sum of the individual vibrations (waves) as shown below. Note: This linear treatment is only true for low power intensity lights. When the power intensities are very high (such as with an electric field strength at 1012 volts/meter), non-linear effects will be excited and the simple sum method should not be used. However, in this discussion, we can use the simple sum method. Superposed Wave of Different Frequencies (very small difference) and Beats We will now...

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Faraday Effect

Faraday effect describes such a phenomenon: If a magnetic field is applied to a medium in a direction parallel with light’s propagation direction, a rotation of the light’s polarization direction happens. This is best shown in a picture. The essence of Faraday effect or Faraday rotation is that it shows the interaction between light and a magnetic field in a medium. In 1845 Faraday discovered that a magnetic field in the direction of propagation of a light beam in a transparent medium produces the effects of circular birefringence. Thus he established for the first time a direct connection between optics and electromagnetism...

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