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Fiber Optic Glossary

Fiber Optic Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Absorption
That portion of optical attenuation in optical fiber resulting from the conversion of optical power to heat .Caused by impurities in the fiber such as hydroxyl ions.

Abrasive
A material such as silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, silica, cerium oxide, emery or rouge that is used to figure, shape, or finish optical elements. Abrasives differ from polishing materials mainly in particle size.

A/B Switch
A device that accepts inputs (optical or electrical) from a primary path and a secondary path to provide automatic or manual switching in the event that the primary path signal is broken or otherwise disrupted. In optical A/B switches, optical signal power thresholds dictate whether the primary path is functioning and signals a switch to the secondary path until optical power is restored to the primary path.

Active Device
A device that requires a source of energy for its operation and has an output that is a function of present and past input signals. Examples include controlled power supplies, transistors, LEDs, amplifiers, and transmitters.

Add/Drop Multiplexing
A multiplexing function offered in connection with SONET that allows lower level signals to be added or dropped from a high-speed optical carrier in a wire center. The connection to the add/drop multiplexer is via a channel to a central office port at a specific digital speed (DS3, DS1, etc.)

ADM
Abbreviation for add-drop multiplexer. A device which adds or drops signals from a communications network.

ADSL
Abbreviation for asynchronous digital subscriber line. See DSL.

Aramid Yarn
Yellow fibers that provide cable tensile strength, support, and additional protection for the optical fiber bundle. Kevlar® is a particular brand of aramid yarn.

Acceptance Angle
The angle over which the core of an optical fiber accepts incoming light; usually measured from the fiber axis. Related to numerical aperture (NA).

Access Network
Part of the telecommunication network that connects to individual and corporate users.

Adapter
An adapter is a mechanical device designed to align fiber-optic connectors. It contains the split sleeve, also known as the interconnect sleeve, that holds the two ferrules together. Adapters can help mate or connect a variety of fiber optic cables together.

Adapter Sleeve
A mechanical fixture within an adapter body that aligns and holds two terminated fiber connectors. Adapter sleeve material is typically phosphor bronze, ceramic or polymer.

Add-drop multiplexer
A device that drops and/or add one or more optical channels to a signal.

All-Dieletric Cable
Cable made entirely of dielectric (insulating) materials without any metal conductors, armor, or strength members.

All Silica Fiber
Also known as all-glass fiber. A fiber with both a silica core and a silica cladding, regardless of the presence of a polymer overcoat or buffer.

Analog
A signal that varies continuously (e.g., sound wavers). Analog signals have frequency and bandwidth measured in hertz.

Angle of Incidence
The angle between an incident ray and the normal to a reflecting or refracting surface.

Aerial Plant
Cable that is suspended in the air on telephone or electric utility poles.

AGC
Abbreviation for automatic gain control. A process or means by which gain is automatically adjusted in a specified manner as a function of input level or another specified parameter.

AM
Abbreviation for amplitude modulation. A transmission technique in which the amplitude of the carrier  varies in accordance with the signal.

Amplifier
A device, inserted within a transmission path, that boosts the strength of an electronic or optical signal. Amplifiers may be placed just after the transmitter (power booster), at a distance between the transmitter and the receiver (in-line amplifier), or just before the receiver (preamplifier).

Angular Misalignment
Loss at a connector due to fiber end face angles being misaligned.

ANSI
Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute.  An organization that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system.

APC (Angled Physical Contact)
Abbreviation for angled physical contact. A style of fiber optic connector with a 5°-15° angle on the connector tip for the minimum possible backreflection.

APD (Avalanche Photodiode)
A photodiode that exhibits internal amplification of photocurrent through avalanche multiplication of carriers in the junction region.

AR Coating
Antireflection coating. A thin, dielectric or metallic film applied to an optical surface to reduce its reflectance and thereby increase its transmittance.

Armadillo Loopback
A ruggedized fiber optic test adapter designed to loop a signal from the Tx side of a port to the Rx side, simulating a complete connection.

Armor
A protective layer, usually metal, wrapped around a cable.

ASE (Amplified Spontaneous Emission)
A background noise mechanism common to all types of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs). It contributes to the noise figure of the EDFA which causes loss of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

ASIC
Abbreviation for application-specific integrated circuit. A custom-designed integrated circuit.

ASTM
Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials. An organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems, and services that serve as a basis for manufacturing, procurement, and regulatory activities.

Asynchronous
Data that is transmitted without an associated clock signal. The time spacing between data characters or blocks may be of arbitrary duration. Opposite of synchronous.

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
A digital transmission switching format, with cells containing 5 bytes of header information followed by 48 data types. A transmission standard widely used by the telecom industry. A digital transmission switching format with cells containing 5 bytes of header information followed by 48 data bytes. Part of the B-ISDN standard.

Attenuation
Reduction of signal magnitude, or loss, normally measured in decibels. Fiber attenuation is normally measured per unit length in decibels per kilometer. The decrease in signal strength along a fiber optic waveguide caused by absorption and scattering. Attenuation is usually expressed in dB/km.

Attenuation Meter
A device used to measure power loss in fiber optic connectors, cables, or systems.

Attenuator
1) In electrical systems, a usually passive network for reducing the amplitude of a signal without appreciably distorting the waveform. 2) In optical systems, a passive device for reducing the amplitude of a signal without appreciably distorting the waveform.

Attenuation-Limited Operation
The condition in a fiber optic link when operation is limited by the power of the received signal (rather than by bandwidth or distortion).

Avalanche Photodiode (APD)
A semiconductor photodetector with integral detection and amplification stages. Electrons generated at a p/n junction are accelerated in a region where they free an avalanche of other electrons. APDs can detect faint signals but require higher voltages than other semiconductor electronics.

Average Power
The average level of power in a signal that varies with time.

AWG (Arrayed Waveguide Grating)
An array of curved planar waveguides that separates many optical channels at once. Also called Waveguide Array. A device, built with silicon planar lightwave circuits (PLC), that allows multiple wavelengths to be combined and separated in a dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) system.

Axial Propagation Constant
For an optical fiber, the propagation constant evaluated along the axis of a fiber in the direction of transmission.

Axis
The center of an optical fiber.

B

Backbone
A transmission network that carries high speed telecommunications between locations. This is normally the main portion of a telecommunication network, with branches going to individual buildings. In a local area network, this is usually the link between routers, switches, and bridges.

Backbone Cabling
The inter-building and intra-building cable connections between entrance facilities, equipment rooms and telecommunications closets. Backbone cabling consists of the transmission media, main and intermediate cross-connects and terminations at these locations.

Backbone System
A transmission network that carries high-speed telecommunications between regions (e.g., a nationwide long-distance telephone system). Sometimes used to describe the part of a local area network that carries signals between branching points.

Backscattering
Scattering of light in the direction opposite to that in which it was originally traveling. The return of a portion of scattered light to the input end of a fiber; the scattering of light in the direction opposite to its original propagation.

BR (Backreflection)
A term applied to any process in the cable plant that causes light to change directions in a fiber and return to the source. Occurs most often at connector interfaces where a glass-air interface causes a reflection.

Bandwidth
The highest frequency that can be transmitted by an analog system.. Also, the information-carrying capacity of a system (especially for digital systems). The range of frequencies within which a fiber optic waveguide or terminal device can transmit data or information.

Bandwidth-limited Operation
The condition in a fiber optic link when bandwidth, rather than received optical power, limits performance. This condition is reached when the signal becomes distorted, principally by dispersion, beyond specified limits.

Baseband
A method of communication in which a signal is transmitted at its original frequency without being impressed on a carrier. The number of signal level transitions per second in digital data. The term is often confused with bits per second. Telecommunications specialists prefer to use "bits-per-second" to provide an accurate description.

Baud
The number of signal-level transitions per second in a digital data. For some common coding schemes, this equals bits per second, but this is not true for more complex coding. Bits per second is less ambiguous. A unit of signaling speed equal to the number of signal symbols per second, which may or may not be equal to the data rate in bits per second.

Beamsplitter
A device that divides incident light into two separate beams. An optical device, such as a partially reflecting mirror, that splits a beam of light into two or more beams. Used in fiber optics for directional couplers.

Bending Loss
Attenuation caused by high-order modes radiating from the outside of a fiber optic waveguide which occur when the fiber is bent around a small radius. See also macrobending, microbending.

Bend Radius
The smallest radius an optical fiber or fiber cable can bend before excessive attenuation or breakage occurs.

Biconic Connector
A type of fiber optic connector consisting of two cone-shaped ferrules aligned by a mating sleeve.

Bidirectional
Operating in both directions. Bidirectional couplers split or combine light the same way when it passes through them in either direction. Bidirectional transmission sends signals in both directions, sometimes through the same fiber.

Birefringent
Having a refractive index that differs for light of different polarizations.

Bit
The smallest unit of information upon which digital communications are based; also an electrical or optical pulse that carries this information.

Bit Depth
The number of levels that a pixel might have, such as 256 with an 8-bit depth or 1,024 with a 10-bit depth.

Bit Period (T)
The amount of time required to transmit a logical one or a logical zero.

Bit Error Rate (BER)
The fraction of bits transmitted incorrectly. The fraction of bits transmitted that are received incorrectly.

BNC
Popular coax bayonet style connector, Often used for baseband video.

BPON
An abbreviation for broadband on passive optical network.

Bragg Grating
A technique for building optical filtering functions directly into a piece of optical fiber based on interferometric techniques. Usually this is accomplished by making the fiber photosensitive and exposing the fiber to deep UV light through a grating. This forms regions of higher and lower refractive indices in the fiber core.

Bragg Scattering
Scattering of light caused by a change in refractive index, as used in Fiber Bragg Gratings and Distributed Bragg Reflectors.

Braid
An essential part of many fiber-optic cable designs, consisting of a layer of woven yarn. Note: In the case of single-fiber loose-buffered or two-fiber "zip-cord" loose-buffered fiber-optic cables, the braid is situated between the buffer tube and jacket. In the case of cables having multiple buffer tubes, the braid is usually situated between the inner jacket and outer jacket.

Break Out
To separate the individual fibers or buffer tubes of a fiber-optic cable for the purpose of splicing or installing optical connectors.

Breakout Cable
A type of fiber optic cable containing several fibers, each with its own jacket and all of them surrounded by one common jacket. Breakout cables are designed for convenient installation of fiber optic connectors but tend to have high transmission losses due to bends in the fibers.

Broadband
Covering a wide range of frequencies or having a high data rate. The broadband label is sometimes used for a network that carries many different services or for video transmission.

Broadcast Transmission
Sending the same signal to many different places, like a television broadcasting station. Broadcast transmission can be over optical fibers if the same signal is delivered to many subscribers.

Bundle of Fibers
A rigid or flexible group of fibers assembled in a unit. Coherent fiber bundles have fibers arranged in the same way on each end and can transmit images.

Buffer
Material that is used to protect an optical fiber or cable from physical damage and to provide mechanical isolation or protection. Fabrication techniques include both tight jacket or loose tube buffering, as well as multiple buffer layers.

Buffer Tubes
A protective tubing used to protect exposed fiber. Commonly used in terminating multi-fiber cable or "fan-out" situations. Also known as furcation tubing.

Burn In
The operation of a laser diode or other component prior to its use in its intended application, as a means of testing and stabilizing it.

Bus Network
A network topology in which all terminals are attached to a transmission medium serving as a bus. Also called a daisy-chain configuration.

Butt Splice
A joining of two fibers without optical connectors arranged end-to-end by means of a coupling. Fusion splicing is an example.

Byte
Eight bits of digital data. (Sometimes parity and check bits are included, so one "byte" may include 10 bits, but only 8 of them are data.)

C

Cable
One or more optical fibers enclosed, with strength members, in a protective covering.

Cable Assembly
A cable that is connector terminated and ready for installation.

Cable Plant
The cable plant consists of all the optical elements including fiber, connectors, splices, etc. between a transmitter and a receiver.

Cable Television
Communications system that distributes broadcast and non-broadcast signals as well as a multiplicity of satellite signals, original programming and other signals by means of a coaxial cable and/or optical fiber.

Carrier
In technology, the wave that is modulated with a signal carrying information. In business, a company that provides telecommunication services.

Carrier-to-Noise Ratio (CNR)
The ratio, in decibels, of the level of the carrier to that of the noise in a receiver’s IF bandwidth before any nonlinear process such as amplitude limiting and detection takes place.

Category 5e
Category 5 (CAT5) cable is a popular twisted pair copper cable. It is used for Ethernet cable applications. Category 5e (CAT5e) can support short-run Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps) networking, unlike CAT5 which supports Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps).

CATV
An acronym for cable television, derived from Community Antenna TeleVision.

C-Band
Wavelengths of about 1530 to 1565 nm, where erbium-doped fiber amplifiers have their strongest gain. Normally erbium-fiber amplifiers operate in either C- or L-band. The wavelength range between 1530 nm and 1562 nm used in some CWDM and DWDM applications.

CCIR
Abbreviation for Consultative Committee on Radio. Replaced by ITU-R.

CCITT
Abbreviation for Consultative Committee on Telephony and Telegraphy. Replaced by ITU-T.

CDMA
Abbreviation for code-division multiple access. A coding scheme in which multiple channels are independently coded for transmission over a single wideband channel using an individual modulation scheme for each channel.

Cell
A fixed-length data packet transmitted in certain digital systems such as ATM.

Center Wavelength
In a laser, the nominal value central operating wavelength. It is the wavelength defined by a peak mode measurement where the effective optical power resides (see illustration). In an LED, the average of the two wavelengths measured at the half amplitude points of the power spectrum.

Central Office
A telephone company facility for switching signals among local telephone circuits; connects to subscriber telephones. Also called a switching office.

Central Memeber
The center component of a cable that provides strength. Commonly referred to as "Central Strength Member."

Channel
A communications path or the signal sent over that path. Through multiplexing several channels, voice channels can be transmitted over an optical channel.

Channel Coding
Data encoding and error correction techniques used to protect the integrity of data. Typically used in channels with high bit error rates such as terrestrial and satellite broadcast and videotape recording.

Channel Markers
A/B Markers easily identify the TX and RX connector on each end of a fiber optic cable assembly. These channel markers assure that the proper connections are made between the transmitting and receiving ports of a transceiver.

Channel Spacing
The amount of bandwidth allocated per channel.

Chirp
In laser diodes, the shift of the laser’s center wavelength during single pulse durations.

Chirped Pulse
A pulse in which the wavelength changes during the duration of the pulse.

Chromatic Dispersion
Wavelength-dependent pulse spreading in optical fibers, measured in pico seconds (of pulse spreading) per nanometer (of source bandwidth) per kilometer (of fiber length). It is the sum of waveguide and material dispersion. Reduced fiber bandwidth caused by different wavelengths of light traveling at different speeds down the optical fiber. Chromatic dispersion occurs because the speed at which an optical pulse travels depends on its wavelength, a property inherent to all optical fiber. May be caused by material dispersion, waveguide dispersion, and profile dispersion.

Circulator
Passive three-port devices that couple light from Port 1 to 2 and Port 2 to 3 and have high isolation in other directions.

Circuit
Originally a physical connection that transmits electricity or signals. Now also a communication channel that guarantees a fixed transmission capacity.

Circuit Switching
making temporary physical or virtual connections between two points, which guarantees a fixed transmission capacity.

Cladding
The layer of glass or other transparent material surrounding the light-carrying core of an optical fiber. It has a lower refractive index than the core and thus confines light in the core. Coatings may be applied over the cladding. Material that surrounds the core of an optical fiber. Its lower index of refraction, compared to that of the core, causes the transmitted light to travel down the core. This is glass or plastic, having a low refractive index, that surrounds the core of a fiber. Optical cladding promotes total internal reflection for the propagation of light in a fiber.

Cladding Mode
A mode confined to the cladding; a light ray that propagates in the cladding.

Cleave
The process of separating an optical fiber by a controlled fracture of the glass, for the purpose of obtaining a fiber end, which is flat, smooth, and perpendicular to the fiber axis.

CLEC (Competitive Local Exchange Carrier)
A company that offers local telephone service in competition against dominant phone companies.

CMTS
Abbreviation for cable modem termination system.

Coarse Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (CWDM)
Transmitting signals at multiple wavelengths through the same fiber with wide spacing between optical channels. Typical spacing is several nanometers or more. Also called wide wavelength multiplexing. CWDM allows eight or fewer channels to be stacked in the 1550 nm region of optical fiber, the C-Band.

Coating
An outer plastic layer applied over the cladding of a fiber for mechanical protection. The material surrounding the cladding of a fiber. Generally a soft plastic material that protects the fiber from damage.

Coax
Coaxial cable - cable with a central metallic conductor surrounded by an insulator that is covered by a metallic sheath that runs the leg nth of the cable. 1) A cable consisting of a center conductor surrounded by an insulating material and a concentric outer conductor and optional protective covering. 2) A cable consisting of multiple tubes under a single protective sheath. This type of cable is typically used for CATV, wideband, video, or RF applications.

Coder
A device, also called an encoder that converts data by the use of a code, frequently one consisting of binary numbers, in such a manner that reconversion to the original form is possible.

Coherent Bundle of Fibers
Fibers packaged together in a bundle so they retain a fixed arrangement at the two ends and can transmit an image.

Coherent Communications
In fiber optics, a communication system where the output of local laser oscillator is mixed with the received signal, and the difference frequency is detected and amplified.

Coherence Length
That length over which energy in two separate waves remains constant. With respect to a laser, the greatest distance between two arms of an interferometric system for which suficient interferometric effects can be obtained.

Collimation
1. The process of aligning the optical axes of optical systems to the reference mechanical axes or surfaces of an instrument.
2. The adjustment of two or more optical axes with respect to each other.

Collimator
An optical instrument consisting of a well-corrected objective lens with an illuminated slit or reticle at its focal plane. Collimators are used in lens testing to determine focal lengths, and in other metrological applications where a distant object at a known location is required.

Compression
Reducing the number of bits needed to encode a digital signal, typically by eliminating long strings of identical bits or bits that do not change in successive sampling intervals (e.g., video frames).

Composite Cable
A cable containing both fiber and copper conductors. Also known as hybrid cable.

Concatenation
The process of connecting pieces of fiber together.

Connector
A device mounted on the end of a fiber-optic cable, light source, receiver, or housing that mates to a similar device to couple light into and out of optical fibers. A connector joins two fiber ends, or one fiber end and a light source or detector. A mechanical or optical device that provides a demountable connection between two fibers or a fiber and a source or detector.

Connector Variation
The maximum value in dB of the difference in insertion loss between mating optical connectors (e.g., with remating, temperature cycling, etc.). Also called optical connector variation.

Concentricity
The measurement of how well-centered the core is within the cladding.

Constructive Interference
Any interference that increases amplitude of the resultant signal. For example, when the wave forms are in phase, they can create a resultant wave equal to the sum of multiple light waves.

Copper
Industry slang for metal wire, either twisted-pair or coaxial cable.

Copper vs Fiber
In general, fiber has many advantages over copper. In copper networks, loss increases with signal frequency- High data rates increase power loss and therefore decrease transmission distances. In fiber optic networks, loss does not change with signal frequency.

Core
The central part of an optical fiber that carries light. The light-conducting portion of a fiber, defined by its higher refraction index. The core is the center of a fiber, surrounded by concentric cladding of lower refractive index.

Coupled Modes
In fiber optics, a mode that shares energy among one or more other modes, all of which propagate together. Note: The distribution of energy among the coupled modes changes with propagation distance.

Coupler
A device that connectors three or more fiber ends, dividing one input between two or more outputs or combining two or more inputs into one output.

Coupling
Transfer of light into or out of an optical fiber. (Note that coupling does not require a coupler).

Coupling Efficiency
The fraction of available output from a radiant source that is coupled and transmitted by an optical fiber.

Crimp Sleeve
A crimped metal cylinder that holds the connector to the cable through the cable's strength member.

Critical Angle
The angle at which light in a high-refractive-index material undergoes total internal reflection. In geometric optics, at a refractive boundary, the smallest angle of incidence at which total internal reflection occurs.

Cross-connect
Connections between terminal blocks on the two sides of a distribution frame or between terminals on a terminal block (also called straps). Also called cross-connection or jumper.

Cross-gain Modulation (XGM)
A technique used in wavelength converters where gain saturation effects in an active optical device, such as a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), allow the conversion of the optical wavelength. Better at shorter wavelengths (e.g. 780 nm or 850 nm).

Cross-phase Modulation (XPM)
A fiber nonlinearity caused by the nonlinear index of refraction of glass. The index of refraction varies with optical power level which causes different optical signals to interact.

Crosstalk (XT)
1) Undesired coupling from one circuit, part of a circuit, or channel to another. 2) Any phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates and undesired effect in another circuit or channel.

CSMA/CD
Abbreviation for carrier sense multiple access with collision detection. A network control protocol in which (a) a carrier sensing is used and (b) while a transmitting data station that detects another signal while transmitting a frame, stops transmitting that frame, waits for a jam signal, and then waits for a random time interval before trying to send that frame again.

Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)
Terminal, associated equipment, and inside wiring located at a subscriber’s premises and connected with a carrier’s communication channel(s) at the demarcation point (demarc), a point established in a building or complex to separate customer equipment from telephone company equipment.

Cut-Back Measurements
Measurement of optical loss made by cutting a fiber to compare loss of a short segment with loss of a longer one.

Cutback Technique
A destructive technique for determining certain optical fiber transmission characteristics, such as attenuation and bandwidth, by (a) performing the desired measurements on a long length of the fiber under test, (b) cutting the fiber under test at a point near the launching end, (c) repeating the measurements on the short length of fiber, and (d) subtracting the results obtained on the short length to determine the results for the residual long length.

Cutoff Mode
The highest order mode that will propagate in a given waveguide at a given frequency.

Cutoff Wavelength
The longest wavelength at which a single mode fiber can transmit two modes, or (equivalently) the shortest wavelength at which a single mode fiber carries only one more.

CW
Abbreviation for continuous wave. Usually refers to the constant optical output from an optical source when it is biased (i.e., turned on) but not modulated with a signal.

Cycles per Second
The frequency of a wave, or number of oscillations it makes per seconds. One cycle per second equals one hertz.

D

D1
A format for component digital video tape recording working to the ITU-R 601, 4:2:2 standard using 8-bit sampling.

D2
The VTR standard for digital composite (coded) NTSC or PAL signals that uses data conforming to SMPTE 244M.

D3
A composite digital video recording format that uses data conforming to SMPTE 244M.

D5
An uncompressed tape format for component digital video which has provisions for HDTV recording by use of 4:1 compression.

Dark Current
The noise current generated by a photodiode in the dark.

Dark Fiber
Optical fiber installed without transmitter and receiver, usually to provide expansion capacity. Some carries lease dark fibers to other companies that add equipment to transmit signals through them.

Data Dependent Jitter
Also called data dependent distortion. Jitter related to the transmitted symbol sequence. DDJ is caused by the limited bandwidth characteristics, non-ideal individual pulse responses, and imperfections in the optical channel components.

Data Rate
The number of bits of information in a transmission system, expressed in bits per second (b/s or bps), and which may or may not be equal to the signal or baud rate.

dBc
Abbreviation for decibel relative to a carrier level.

dBm
Decibels relative to 1mW.

dBµ
Decibels relative to 1 µW.

DBR
Reflection of light caused by periodic changes in refractive index in a stack of layers of different composition or-equivalently-by a corrugation at the boundary between two semiconductor layers. The period and the refractive index select one wavelength.

DCE
Abbreviation for data circuit-terminating equipment. 1) In a data station, the equipment that performs functions such as signal conversion and coding, at the network end of the line between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the line, and may be a separate or an integral part of the DTE or of intermediate equipment. 2) The interfacing equipment that may be required to couple the data terminal equipment (DTE) into a transmission circuit or channel and from a transmission circuit of a channel into the DTE.

Decibel (dB)
A logarithmic comparison of power levels, defined as ten times the base-10 logarithm of the ratio of the two power levels. One-tenth of a bel.

Delay Line
A device used to delay transmission of a signal for functions such as memory loops, sequential processing or built-in testing. The delay can be achieved by coiling long lengths of coaxial cable or optical fiber.

Demultiplexer
A device that separates a multiplexed signal into its original components; the inverse of a multiplexer.

Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (DWDM)
Transmitting signals at multiple wavelengths through the same fiber with close spacing. Channel spacing usually is 200GHz or less in frequency units, corresponding to 1.6nm in wavelength units at 1550nm. The transmission of many of closely spaced wavelengths in the 1550 nm region over a single optical fiber. Wavelength spacings are usually 100 GHz or 200 GHz which corresponds to 0.8 nm or 1.6 nm. DWDM bands include the C-Band, the S-Band, and the L-Band.

Destructive Interference
Any interference that decreases the desired signal. For example, two light waves that are equal in amplitude and frequency, and out of phase by 180°, will negate one another.

Detector
A device that generates an electrical signal when illuminated by light. The most common fiber-optic detectors are photodiodes.

DFB
Feedback arising from reflection distributed through a structure.

Diameter-mismatch Loss
The loss of power at a joint that occurs when the transmitting fiber has a diameter greater than the diameter of the receiving fiber. The loss occurs when coupling light from a source to fiber, from fiber to fiber, or from fiber to detector.

Dielectric Filter
An optical fiber that selectively transmits one wavelength and reflects others based on interference effects inside the structure. Also called interference filter.

Diffraction Grating
An array of fine, parallel, equally spaced reflecting or transmitting lines that mutually enhance the effects of diffraction to concentrate the diffracted light in a few directions determined by the spacing of the lines and by the wavelength of the light.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
A service that transmits digital signals to homes at speeds of hundreds of kilobits to tens of metabits per second over twisted-pair wires at higher frequencies than voice telephone signals. There are several variations.

Diode
An electronic device that lets current flow in only one direction. Semiconductor diodes used in fiber optics contain a junction between regions of different doping. They include light emitters (LEDs and laser diodes) and detectors (photodiodes).

Diode Laser
A semiconductor diode that generates laser light. A current flowing through the diode causes electrons and holes to recombine at the junction layer between p- and n-doped regions, producing excited states that can release energy in the form of light.

DIP
Abbreviation for dual in-line package. An electronic package with a rectangular housing and a row of pins along each of two opposite sides.

Diplexer
A device that combines two or more types of signals into a single output. Usually incorporates a multiplexer at the transmit end and a demultiplexer at the receiver end.

Directional Coupler
A coupler in which light is transmitted differently when it goes in different directions.

Dispersion
The stretching of light pulses as they travel in an optical fiber, which increases their duration. The temporal spreading of a light signal in an optical waveguide caused by light signals traveling at different speeds through a fiber either due to modal or chromatic effects.

Dispersion Compensation
Offsetting the dispersion of one fiber by using different fibers or other components that have dispersion of the opposite sign. Usually done for chromatic dispersion; compensation for polarization-mode dispersion is in development.

Dispersion-compensating Fiber (DCF)
A fiber that has the opposite dispersion of the fiber being used in a transmission system. It is used to nullify the dispersion caused by that fiber.

Dispersion-compensating Module (DCM)
This module has the opposite dispersion of the fiber being used in a transmission system. It is used to nullify the dispersion caused by that fiber. It can be either a spool of a special fiber or a grating based module.

Dispersion-Shifted Fiber (DSF)
Optical fiber with nominal wavelength of zero chromatic dispersion shifted away from 1310nm. Often used for zero dispersion-shifted fiber, which has zero chromatic dispersion at 1550nm and is not used in DWDM system.

Dispersion Management
A technique used in a fiber optic system design to cope with the dispersion introduced by the optical fiber. A dispersion slope compensator (illustrated) is one dispersion management technique.

Dispersion Penalty
The result of dispersion in which pulses and edges smear making it difficult for the receiver to distinguish between ones and zeros. This results in a loss of receiver sensitivity compared to a short fiber and measured in dB. The equations for calculating dispersion penalty are as follows:

Dispersion Slope
The change in dispersion with wavelength

Distributed Bragg Reflection
Reflection of light caused by periodic changes in refractive index in a stack of layers of different composition or-equivalently-by a corrugation at the boundary between two semiconductor layers. The period and the refractive index select one wavelength.

Distributed Feedback Laser (DFB Laser)
A diode laser with a corrugation in the electrically pumped part of the laser, which selects the laser wavelength by reflecting that wavelength back into the active layer.

Distribution System
Part of a cable system consisting of trunk and feeder cables used to carry signals from headend to customer terminals.

Dominant Mode
The mode in an optical device spectrum with the most power.

Dope
Thick liquid or paste used to prepare a surface or a varnish-like substance used for waterproofing or strengthening a material.

Dopant
An impurity added to an optical medium to change its optical properties. EDFAs use erbium as a dopant for optical fiber.

Double-window Fiber (Dual Window Fiber)
1) Multimode fibers optimized for 850 nm and 1300 nm operation.
2) Single-mode fibers optimized for 1310 nm and 1550 nm operation.

Doubly Clad Fiber
Optical fiber that exhibits wide transmission bandwidth and low bending loss to reduction of guided modes as a result of the high-refractive index external cladding and the tight confinement within the core regions.

Drawing Tower
A system for fabricating optical fiber, consisting of a furnace that heats the materials, a polymer coating stage, a capstan-pulling apparatus that free-draws the preform into a fiber and a drum on which the finished product is wound.

DSR
Abbreviation for data signaling rate. The aggregate rate at which data pass a point in the transmission path of a data transmission system expressed in bits per second (bps or b/s).

Drop
A cable that delivers service to an individual customer.

DSx
A transmission rate in the North American digital telephone hierarchy. Also called T-carrier.

DTE
Abbreviation for data terminal equipment.
1) An end instrument that converts user information into signals for transmission or reconverts the received signals into user information.
2) The functional unit of a data station that serves as a data source or a data sink and provides for the data communication control function to be performed in accordance with link protocol.

DTR
Abbreviation for data terminal ready. In a communications network, a signal from a remote transmitter that the transmitter is clear to receive data.

DTV
Abbreviation for digital television. Any technology, using any of several digital encoding schemes, used in connection with the transmission and reception of television signals. Depending on the transmission medium, DTV often uses some type of digital compression to reduce the required digital data rate. Except for artifacts of the compression, DTV is more immune (than analog television) to degradation in transmission, resulting in a higher quality of both audio and video, to the limits of signal reception.

Dual Attachment Concentrator
A concentrator that offers two attachments to the FDDI network which are capable of accommodating a dual (counter-rotating) ring.

Dual Ring (FDDI Dual Ring)
A pair of counter-rotating logical rings.

Duplex
In cables, one that contains two fibers. For connectors, one that connects two pairs of fibers. For data transmission, full-duplex transmitters and receivers simultaneously send and receive signals in both directions, but half-duplex cannot do both at the same time.

Duplex Cable
A two-fiber cable suitable for duplex transmission.

Duplex Transmission
Transmission in both directions, either one direction at a time (half-duplex) or both directions simultaneously (full-duplex).

E

E2000 Connector
The E2000/LX-5 is like a LC but with a shutter over the end of the fiber.

Edge-Emitting Diode (ELED)
An LED that emits light from its edge, producing more directional output than LEDs that emit from their top surface.

Edge-Emitting Laser
A semiconductor laser that emits light in the plane of its junction from the edge of the chip.

Effective Area
The area of a single-mode fiber that carries the light.

EIA
An acronym for Electronic Industries Alliance.

Ellipticity
Describes the fact that the core or cladding may be elliptical rather than circular.

Electro-Absorption Modulator
A semiconductor diode reverse-modulated so it modulates light passing through it.

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Noise generated when stray electromagnetic fields induce currents in electrical conductors.

Electromagnetic Radiation
Waves made up of oscillating electrical and magnetic fields perpendicular to one another and traveling at the speed of light. Can also be viewed as photons or quanta of energy. Electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X rays, and gamma rays.

Enclosure
A cabinet used to organize and enclose cable terminations and splices for use within main equipment rooms, entrance facilities, main or intermediate cross-connects and telecommunications closets.

Encoding
A means of combining clock and data information into a self synchronizing stream of signals.

Endscope
A fiber-optic bundle used for imaging and viewing inside the human body.

End Face
Term often used to describe the end of a ferrule. The end face is finished or polished to have a smooth end, which can minimize connector loss or backreflection. Typical polish types are PC, UPC, and APC.

End finish
The quality of the end surface of a fiber prepared for splicing or terminated in a connector. For an optical fiber, the optical quality of the surface at the end of the fiber.

E/O
Abbreviation for electrical-to-optical converter. A device that converts electrical signals to optical signals, such as a laser diode.

Equilibrium Mode Distribution (EMD)
The steady modal state of a multimode fiber in which the relative power distribution among modes is independent of fiber length.

Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA)
Optical fiber doped with the rare earth element erbium, which can amplify light at 1530 to 1610nm when pumped by an external light source.

Error Correction
In digital transmission systems, a scheme that adds overhead to the data to permit a certain level of errors to be detected and corrected.

Error Detection
Checking for errors in data transmission. A calculation based on the data being sent; the results of the calculation are sent along with the data. The receiver then performs the same calculation and compares its results with those sent. If the receiver detects an error, it can be corrected, or it can simply be reported.

ESCON
Abbreviation for enterprise systems connection. A duplex optical connector used for computer-to-computer data exchange.

Ethernet
A local-area network standard. The original Ethernet transmits 10 Mbit/s. Other version are Fast Ethernet at 100 Mbit/s, Gigabit Ethernet at 1Gbit/s, and 10 Gigabit Ethernet. A standard protocol (IEEE 802.3) for a 10-Mb/s baseband local area network (LAN) bus using carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) as the access method. Ethernet is a standard for using various transmission media, such as coaxial cables, unshielded twisted pairs, and optical fibers.

Evanescent Wave
Guided light waves that extend beyond the boundary of a fiber core into the cladding. Evanescent waves can transfer energy between waveguides. Light guided in the inner part of an optical fiber's cladding rather than in the core, i.e. the portion of the light wave in the core that penetrates into the cladding.

Excess Loss
Loss of a passive coupler above that inherent in dividing light among the output ports. In a fiber optic coupler, the optical loss from that portion of light that does not emerge from the nominal operation ports of the device.

External Modulation
Modulation of output of a light source by an external device.

Extrinsic Loss
Splice losses arising from the splicing process itself.

Extinction Ratio
The ratio of the low, or OFF optical power level (PL) to the high, or ON optical power level (PH).

Extinction Ratio
The ratio of the power of a plane-polarized beam that is transmitted through a polarizer placed in its path with its polarizing axis parallel to the beam's plane, as compared with the transmitted power when the polarizer's axis is perpendicular to the beam's plane.

Eye Pattern
A pattern formed by overlaying traces of a series of transmitted pulses in a visual display. The more open the eye, the sharper the distinction between on and off pulses. A diagram that shows the proper function of a digital system. The "openness" of the eye relates to the BER that can be achieved.

F

Fabry Perot Laser
A laser oscillator in which two mirrors are separated by an amplifying medium with an inverted population, making a Fabry-Perot cavity. Standard diode lasers are Fabry-Perot lasers.

Fall Time
Also called turn-off time. The time required for the trailing edge of a pulse to fall from 90% to 10% of its amplitude; the time required for a component to produce such a result. Typically measured between the 90% and 10% points or alternately the 80% and 20% points.

Fast Axis
In a birefringent material, the index of refraction varies with the direction of vibration of a lightwave. That direction having a low refractive index is the fast axis; at right angles to it is the slow axis, with a high index of refraction.

Faraday Effect
A phenomenon that causes some materials to rotate the polarization of light in the presence of a magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation. Also called magneto-optic effect.

Fan-Out
A multi-fiber cable constructed in a tight buffered tube design. At a termination point, cable fibers must be separated from the cable to their separate connection positions.

FC Connector
FC stands for Fixed Connection. It is fixed by way of a threaded barrel housing. FC connectors are typical in test environments and for singlemode applications.

FCC
Abbreviation for Federal Communications Commission. The U.S. Government board of five presidential appointees that has the authority to regulate all non-Federal Government interstate telecommunications as well as all international communications that originate or terminate in the United States.

FC/PC
See FC. A threaded optical connector that uses a special curved polish on the connector for very low backreflection. Good for single-mode or multimode fiber.

FCS
Abbreviation for frame check sequence. An error-detection scheme that (a) uses parity bits generated by polynomial encoding of digital signals, (b) appends those parity bits to a digital signal, and (c) uses decoding algorithms that detect errors in the received digital signal.

FDA
Abbreviation for Food and Drug Administration. Organization responsible for, among other things, laser safety.

Frequency-division Multiplexing (FDM)
A method of deriving two or more simultaneous, continuous channels from a transmission medium by assigning separate portions of the available frequency spectrum to each of the individual channels.

Ferrule
A tube within a connector with a central hole that contains and aligns a fiber.

Fiber Amplifier
An optical fiber doped to amplify light from an external source. The most important type is the erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Fiber Bandwidth
The lowest frequency at which the magnitude of the fiber transfer function decreases to a specified fraction of the zero frequency value. Often, the specified value is one-half the optical power at zero frequency.

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)
An optical fiber in which the core refractive index varies periodically, causing Bragg scatting at wavelengths selected by the period and refractive index. A fiber Bragg grating reflects the selected wavelength and transmits others.

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
A standard for a 100 Mbit/s fiber optic local-area network. Abbreviation for fiber distributed data interface.
1) A dual counter-rotating ring local area network.
2) A connector used in a dual counter-rotating ring local area network (illustrated).

Fiber Fuse
A mechanism whereby the core of a single-mode fiber can be destroyed at high optical power levels.

Fiber Grating
An optical fiber in which the refractive index of the core varies periodically along its length, scattering light in a way similar to a diffraction grating, and transmitting or reflecting certain wavelengths selectively.

Fiber Optic Attenuator
A component installed in a fiber optic transmission system that reduces the power in the optical signal. It is often used to limit the optical power received by the photodetector to within the limits of the optical receiver.

Fiber-Optic Gyroscope
A coil of optical fiber that can detect rotation about its axis.

Fiber Optic Cable
A cable containing one or more optical fibers.

Fiber Optic Communication System
The transfer of modulated or unmodulated optical energy through optical fiber media which terminates in the same or different media.

Fiber Optic Link
A transmitter, receiver, and cable assembly that can transmit information between two points.

Fiber Optic Modems
Fiber optic modems are used in fiber optic networks for sending and receiving data.

Fiber Optic Ribbon
A coherent optical fiber bundle in which the configuration is flat rather than round, giving an output in a line.

Fiber Optic Sensor
Any device in which variations in the transmitted power or the rate of transmission of light in optical fiber are the means of measurement or control. Fibers can be used to measure temperature, pressure, strain, voltage, current, liquid level, rotation and particle velocity

Fiber Optic Span
An optical fiber/cable terminated at both ends which may include devices that add, subtract, or attenuate optical signals.

Fiber Optic Subsystem
A functional entity with defined bounds and interfaces which is part of a system. It contains solid state and/or other components and is specified as a subsystem for the purpose of trade and commerce.

Fiberscope
An optical instrument consisting of an objective lens, a coherent (usually flexible) fiber bundle and an eyepiece to examine the output of the fiber bundle.

Fiber to the Curb (FTTC)
Fiber optic service to a node that is connected by wires to several nearby homes, typically on a block.

Fiber to the Home (FTTH)
A network in which optical fibers bring signals all the way to homes.

Fibre Channel
A standard for transmitting signals at 100 Mbit/s to 4.25 Gbit/s over fiber or (at slower speeds) copper. An industry-standard specification that originated in Great Britain which details computer channel communications over fiber optics at transmission speeds from 132 Mb/s to 1062.5 Mb/s at distances of up to 10 kilometers.

Fiber Tracer
An instrument that couples visible light into the fiber to allow visual checking of continuity and tracing for correct connections.

Fiber Identifier
A device that clamps onto a fiber and couples light from the fiber by bending, to identify the fiber and detect high speed traffic of an operating link or a 2 kHz tone injected by a test source.

Figure 8 Cable
An aerial cable configuration in which the conductors and the steel strand which supports the cable are integrally jacketed. A cross section of the finished cable approximates the figure 8.

Filter
A device which transmits only part of the incident energy and may thereby change the spectral distribution of energy.

Filled Cable
A cable construction in which the cable core is filled with a gel material that will prevent moisture from entering or passing through the cable.

FITL
Fiber in the loop. Fiber-in-the-loop (FITL): Fiber optic service to a node that is located in a neighborhood.

Flooding Compound
A substance surrounding the buffer tubes of a fiber-optic cable, to prevent water intrusion into the interstices in the event of a breach of the jacket.

Fluoride Glasses
Materials that have the amorphous structure of glass but are made of fluoride compounds (e.g., zirconium fluoride ) rather than oxide compounds (e.g., silica). Suitable for very long wavelength transmission. This material tends to be destroyed by water, limiting its use.

FM (Frequency Modulation)
A method of transmission in which the carrier frequency varies in accordance with the signal.

Forward Error Correcting (FEC)
A communication technique used to compensate for a noisy transmission channel. Extra information is sent along with the primary data payload to correct for errors that occur in transmission.

FOTP (Fiber Optic Test Procedure)
Standards developed and published by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) under the EIA-RS-455 series of standards.

FWM - Four Wave Mixing (FWM)
A nonlinearity common in DWDM systems where multiple wavelengths mix together to form new wavelengths, called interfering products. Interfering products that fall on the original signal wavelength become mixed with the signal, mudding the signal, and causing attenuation. Interfering products on either side of the original wavelength can be filtered out. FWM is most prevalent near the zero-dispersion wavelength and at close wavelength spacings.

FP
Abbreviation for Fabry-Perot. Generally refers to any device, such as a type of laser diode, that uses mirrors in an internal cavity to produce multiple reflections.

Free-Space Optics
Also called free-space photonics. The transmission of modulated visible or infrared (IR) beams through the atmosphere via lasers, LEDs, or IR-emitting diodes (IREDs) to obtain broadband communications.

Frame
A fixed-length block of data transmitted as a unit; SONET transmits frames. In video, one of a series of images shown in sequence.

Frequency
The number of times an electromagnetic wave oscillates in a second, or the number of wave peaks that pass a point in second; measured in hertz.

FDM - Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)
Combining analog signals by assigning each a different carrier frequency and merging them in a single signal with a broad range of frequencies

Frequency-shift Keying (FSK)
Frequency modulation in which the modulating signal shifts the output frequency between predetermined values. Also called frequency-shift modulation, frequency-shift signaling.

Fresnel Reflection Loss
Reflection losses at the ends of fibers caused by differences in the refractive index between glass and air. The maximum reflection caused by a perpendicular air-glass interface is about 4% or about -14 dB.

FSAN
Abbreviation for full service access network. A forum for the world’s largest telecommunications services providers and equipment suppliers to work define broadband access networks based primarily on the ATM passive optical network structure.

FTTB
Fiber to the Building. This is in reference to fiber optic cable, carrying network data, connected all the way from an Internet service provider to a customer's physical building.

FTTC
An abbreviation for fiber to the curb.

FTTD
An abbreviation for fiber to the desk.

FTTH
An abbreviation for fiber to the home.

FTTP
Stands for Fiber to the Premises.

FTTx
An abbreviation for 'Fiber to the x'. The 'x' is a variable which can mean fiber to the: premises, curb, home, business, or desk, for example.

Full Duplex
In data transmission, transmitters and receivers that simultaneously send and receive signals in both directions.

Fundamental Mode
The lowest order mode of a waveguide. Note: In optical fibers, the fundamental mode is designated LP01 or HE11.

Fused Fibers
A bundle of fibers melted together so they maintain a fixed alignment with respect to each other in a rigid rod.

Fused Coupler
A method of making a multimode or single-mode coupler by wrapping fibers together, heating them, and pulling them to form a central unified mass so that light on any input fiber is coupled to all output fibers.

Fusion Splice
A splice made by melting the tips of two fibers together so they form a solid junction.

Fusion Splicer
An instrument that permanently bonds two fibers together by heating and fusing them.

Furcation Tubing
A protective tubing that protects exposed fiber. Commonly used in terminating multi-fiber cable or "fan-out" situations. Also referred to as buffer tubing.

FUT
Abbreviation for fiber under test. Refers to the fiber being measured by some type of test equipment.

FWHM
Abbreviation for full width half maximum. Used to describe the width of a spectral emission at the 50% amplitude points. Also known as FWHP (full width half power).

G

Gallium Aluminum Arsenide (GaAlAs)
A semiconductor compound used in LEDs, diode lasers, and certain detectors.

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)
A semiconductor compound used in LEDs, diode lasers, detectors and electronic components.

Gap Loss
Loss resulting from the end separation of two axially aligned fibers.

Gap Loss Attenuator
An optical attenuator that exploits the principle of gap loss to reduce the optical power level when inserted in-line in the fiber path. e.g., to prevent saturation of the receiver.

Gaussian Beam
A beam pattern used to approximate the distribution of energy in a fiber core. It can also be used to describe emission patterns from surface-emitting LEDs. Most people would recognize it as the bell curve (illustrated).

GBE
An abbreviation for Gigabit Ethernet. Gigabit networking, or commonly called 10-Gigabit Ethernet (10GBASE-T), is a communications technology that offers data speeds up to 10 billion bits per second.

Gbit/s
Gigabits (billion bits ) per second

Ge
Abbreviation for germanium. Generally used in detectors. Good for most fiber optic wavelengths (e.g., 800-1600 nm). Performance is inferior to InGaAs

Gel
A substance, resembling petroleum jelly in viscosity, that surrounds a fiber, or multiple fibers, enclosed in a loose buffer tube.

GHz
Abbreviation for gigahertz. One billion Hertz (cycles per second) or 109 Hertz.

Graded-Index Fiber
A fiber in which the refractive index changes gradually with distance from the fiber axis, rather than abruptly at the core-cladding interface.

Graded-Index Fiber Lens
A short segment of a graded-index fiber that focuses light passing through it.

GRIN
Abbreviation for gradient index. Generally refers to the SELFOC lens often used in fiber optics.

Group Delay
The rate of change of the total phase shift with respect to angular frequency, d /d , through a device or transmission medium, where is the total phase shift, and is the angular frequency equal to 2f , where f is the frequency.

Group Delay Time
The difference in travel time through a fiber for light of different wavelengths.

Group Index
Also called group refractive index. In fiber optics, for a given mode propagating in a medium of refractive index (n), the group index (N), is the velocity of light in a vacuum (c), divided by the group velocity of the mode.

Group Velocity
1) The velocity of propagation of an envelope produced when an electromagnetic wave is modulated by, or mixed with, other waves of different frequencies.
2) For a particular mode, the reciprocal of the rate of change of the phase constant with respect to angular frequency.
3) The velocity of the modulated optical power.

H

Half-Duplex
In data transmission, a system in which transmitters and receivers cannot simultaneously send and receive signals.

Hard-Clad Silica Fiber
A fiber with a hard plastic cladding surrounding a step-index silica core. (Other plastic-clad silica fibers have a soft plastic cladding.)

HDSL
Abbreviation for high data-rate digital subscriber line. A DSL operating at a high data rate compared to the data rates specified for ISDN.

HDTV
Abbreviation for high-definition television. Television that has approximately twice the horizontal and twice the vertical emitted resolution specified by the NTSC standard.

Head-End
1) A central control device required within some LAN and MAN systems to provide such centralized functions as remodulation, retiming, message accountability, contention control, diagnostic control, and access to a gateway.
2) A central control device within CATV systems to provide such centralized functions as remodulation (illustrated). See also local area network (LAN).

Helium Neon Laser
The most commonly used gas laser. The HeNe laser has an emission that is determined by neon atoms by virtue of a resonant transfer of excitation of helium. It operates continuously in the red, infrared and far-infrared regions and emits highly monochromatic radiation.

HFC - Hybrid Fiber/Coax (HFC)
The use of fiber to distribute cable-television signals to nodes, which in turn distribute them to homes over coaxial cable.

HFC Network
A telecommunication technology in which optical fiber and coaxial cable are used in different sections of the network to carry broadband content. The network allows a CATV company to install fiber from the cable headend to serve nodes located close to business and homes, and then from these fiber nodes, use coaxial cable to individual businesses and homes.

Hierarchy
A set of transmission speeds arranged to multiplex signals at successively higher data rates.

High Loss Fiber
Optical fiber in which the attenuation exceeds the normally acceptable level for long-haul or data communications use.

HIPPI
Abbreviation for high performance parallel interface as defined by the ANSI X3T9.3 document, a standard technology for physically connecting devices at short distances and high speeds. Primarily to connect supercomputers and to provide high-speed backbones for local area networks (LANs).

Hockey Puck
A polishing fixture used to facilitate the manual finishing of the endfaces of certain types of optical fiber connectors.

Hybrid Cable
1. A fiber optic cable containing two or more different types of fiber, such as 62.5µm multimode and singlemode.
2. A cable containing both optical fiber and copper wire. Also known as composite cable.

Hydrogen Losses
Increases in fiber connector attenuation that occur when hydrogen diffuses into the glass matrix and absorbs some light.

I

ICEA
Abbreviation for Insulated Cable Engineers Association. A technical professional organization that contributes to the standards of insulated cable in these four areas: power cables, communication cables, portable cables, and control and instrumentation. Within this organization there are subcommittees that concentrate on one of the four areas.

IEEE
Abbreviation for Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. A technical professional association that contributes to voluntary standards in technical areas ranging from computer engineering, biomedical technology and telecommunications, to electric power, aerospace and consumer electronics, among others.

IF
Abbreviation for Intermediate Frequency. A frequency to which a carrier frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception.

Index-Matching Gel (Index-Matching Fluid)
A gel or fluid with refractive index close to glass that reduces refractive-index discontinuities that can cause reflective losses.

Index Matching Material
A substance, usually a liquid, cement (adhesive), or gel, which has an index of refraction that closely approximates that of an optical fiber, and is used to reduce Fresnel reflection at the fiber endface.

Index Dip
In an optical fiber, an undesired decrease in the refractive index at the center of the core.

Index of Refraction
The speed of light in a vacuum divided by the speed of light in a material, abbreviated n, which measures how materials refract light.

Index Profile
The refractive index of a fiber as a function of cross section.

Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs)
A semiconductor material used in lasers, LEDs, and detectors.

Indium Gallium Arsenide Phosphide (InGaAsP)
A semiconductor material used in lasers, LEDs, and detectors.

Infrared (IR)
Light with wavelengths longer than 700nm and shorter than about 1mm, invisible to the human eye, which we can feel as heat. Glass optical fibers transmit infrared signals at 700 to about 1650nm in the infrared.

Infrared Emitting Diodes
LEDs that emit infrared energy (830 nm or longer).

Infrared Fiber
Colloquially, optical fibers with best transmission at wavelengths of 2µm or longer, made of materials other than silica glass.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Originally a standard to transmit two digital voice lines at 64 kbit/s and one 16 kbit/s data channel. Now repackaged as IDSL, a form of DSL, transmitting 128 kbit/s over distances beyond the reach of DSL.

In-line Amplifier
An EDFA or other type of amplifier placed in a transmission line to strengthen the attenuated signal for transmission onto the next, distant site. In-line amplifiers are all-optical devices.

Integrated Optics
Optical devices that perform two or more functions and are integrated on a single substrate; analogous to integrated electronic circuits.

Intensity
Power per unit solid angle.

InP
Indium Phosphide. A semiconductor material used to make optical amplifiers and HBTs.

Insertion Loss
The loss of power that results from inserting a component, such as a connector, coupler (illustrated), or splice, into a previously continuous path.

Inside Plant
Telecommunications facilities placed inside a building.

Insulation
A material having high resistance to the flow of electric current. Often called a dielectric.

Integrated Detector/Preamplifier (IDP)
A detector package containing a PIN photodiode and transimpedance amplifier.

Intensity
The square of the electric field strength of an electromagnetic wave. Intensity is proportional to irradiance and may get used in place of the term "irradiance" when only relative values are important.

Intensity Modulation (IM)
In optical communications, a form of modulation in which the optical power output of a source varies in accordance with some characteristic of the modulating signal.

Interchannel Isolation
The ability to prevent undesired optical energy from appearing in one signal path as a result of coupling from another signal path. Also called crosstalk.

Interference
For light, the way that waves add together, depending on their phase. Constructive interference occurs when the waves are in phase and their amplitudes add. Destructive interference occurs when the waves are 180 degree out of phase and their amplitudes cancel.

Interference Filter
An optical filter that selectively transmits one wavelength and reflects others based on interference effects inside the structure. Also called dielectric filter.

Interferometer
An instrument that employs the interference of lightwaves to measure the accuracy of optical surfaces; it can measure a length in terms of the length of a wave of light by using interference phenomena based on the wave characteristics of light. Interferometers are used extensively for testing optical elements during manufacture. Typical designs include the Michelson, Twyman-Green and Fizeau interferometers.

Interleaver
An optical device that separates a series of optical channels so alternating wavelengths emerge out its two ports. The best known type is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

Intermodulation (Mixing)
A fiber nonlinearity mechanism caused by the power dependant refractive index of glass. Causes signals to beat together and generate interfering components at different frequencies. Very similar to four wave mixing.

Internet Protocol (IP)
Standard packet-switched transmission format for the Internet; uses variable-length packets.

International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
A civil international organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, established to promote standardized telecommunications on a worldwide basis. The ITU-R and the ITU-T are committees under the ITU, which is recognized by the United Nations as the specialized agency for telecommunications.

Intrinsic Losses
Loss due to inherent traits within the fiber; for example, absorption, scattering, and splice loss.

IP
Abbreviation for Internet protocol. A standard protocol, developed by the DOD, for use in interconnected systems of packet-switched computer communications networks.

IRE Unit
An arbitrary unit created by the Institute of Radio Engineers to describe the amplitude characteristic of a video signal, where pure white is defined as 100 IRE with a corresponding voltage of 0.714 Volts and the blanking level is 0 IRE with a corresponding voltage of 0.286 Volts.

ISA
Abbreviation for Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society. An international, non-profit, technical organization. The society fosters advancement of the use of sensors, instruments, computers, and systems for measurement and control in variety of applications

ISO
Abbreviation for International Standards Organization. Established in 1947, ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards committees from 140 countries. The organization promotes the development of standardization throughout the world with a focus on facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and developing the cooperation of intellectual, scientific, technological, and economical activities.

ISP
Abbreviation for Internet service provider. A company or organization that provides Internet connections to individuals or companies via dial-up, ISDN, T1, or some other connection.

J

Jacket
The outer, protective covering of the cable. Also called the cable sheath.

Jitter
Small and rapid variations in the timing of a waveform due to noise, changes in component characteristics, supply voltages, imperfect synchronizing circuits, etc. See also DDJ, DCD, and RJ. Also called phase jitter, timing distortion, or inter-symbol interference. The slight movement of a transmission signal in time or phase that can introduce errors and loss of synchronization. The amount of jitter will increase with longer cables, cables with higher attenuation, and signals at higher data rates.

Jumper Cable
A short single fiber cable with connectors on both ends used for interconnecting other cables or testing.

K

Kevlar®
A very strong, very light, synthetic compound developed by DuPont which is used to strengthen optical cables.

kHz
One thousand cycles per second.

km
Abbreviation for kilometer. 1 km = 3,280 feet or 0.62 miles.

L

Lambertian Emitter
An emitter that radiates according to Lambert’s cosine law, which states that the radiance of certain idealized surfaces depends on the viewing angle of the surface. The radiant intensity of such a surface is maximum normal to the surface and decreases in proportion to the cosine of the angle from the normal. Given by:

Large-Core Fiber
Usually, a fiber with a core of 200µm or more.

Large Effective Area Fiber (LEAF)
An optical fiber, developed by Corning, designed to have a large area in the core, which carries the light.

Laser
From Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, one of the wide range of devices that generates light by that principle. Laser light is directional, covers a narrow range of wavelengths, and is more coherent than ordinary light. Semiconductor diode lasers are the usual light sources in fiber optic systems.

Laser Diode (LD)
A semiconductor that emits coherent light when forward biased.

Lateral Displacement Loss (Lateral Offset Loss)
The loss of power that results from lateral displacement of optimum alignment between two fibers or between a fiber and an active device.

Launch Fiber (Launch cable)
An optical fiber used to couple and condition light from an optical source into an optical fiber. Often the launch fiber is used to create an equilibrium mode distribution in multimode fiber. Also called launching fiber.

Layer
A standard or protocol for signal transmission or processing to perform certain functions. It includes standard interfaces with other layers, which perform other functions.

LC Connector
LC stands for Lucent Connector. The LC is a small form-factor fiber optic connector.

L-Band
Wavelengths of about 1570 to 1625nm where some erbium-doped fiber amplifiers operate. Separate from C-Band.

Leaky Mode
In an optical fiber, a mode having a field that decays monotonically for a finite distance in the transverse direction but becomes oscillatory everywhere beyond that finite distance.

LEC (Local Exchange Carrier)
A local telephone company, i.e., a communications common carrier that provides ordinary local voice-grade telecommunications service under regulation within a specified service area.

LEX
Abbreviation for local exchange. Synonym for central office.

L-I Curve
The plot of optical output (L) as a function of current (I) which characterizes an electrical-to-optical converter. A typical L-I curve is shown at right.

Light ARMOR Cable
A fiber optic cable assembly with ruggedized plastic jacketing providing fiber protection for semi-harsh environment, commercial, or industrial applications.

Light Emitting Diode (LED)
A semiconductor diode that emits incoherent light at the junction between p- and n-doped materials.

Lightguide
An optical fiber or fiber bundle.

Light Piping
Use of fibers to illuminates.

Lightwave
An adjective, a synonym for optical, often (but not always) meaning fiber-optic. The path of a point on a wavefront. The direction of the lightwave is generally normal (perpendicular) to the wavefront.

Linearity
The basic measurement of how well analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversions are performed. To test for linearity, a mathematically perfect diagonal line is converted and then compared to a copy of itself. The difference between the two lines is calculated to show linearity of the system and is given as a percentage or range of least significant bits.

Linewidth
The rang of wavelengths in an optical signal, sometimes called spectral width.

Lip
A defect in the cleaved end face of an optical fiber, in the form of a sharp protrusion at the edge of the fiber.

Local-Area-Network (LAN)
A network that transmits data among many nodes in a small area (e.g., a building or campus). A communication link between two or more points within a small geographic area, such as between buildings. Smaller than a metropolitan area network (MAN) or a wide area network(WAN).

Local Loop
The part of the telephone network extending from the central (switching) office to the subscriber.

LH - Long Haul (LH)
Abbreviation for long-haul. A classification of video performance under RS-250C. Lower performance than medium-haul or short-haul.

LOMMF Laser Optimized Multimode Fiber
LOMMF is the highest capacity medium for 10-gig optical transmission. LOMMF was developed for use with VCSEL lasers. With laser optimized multimode fiber no special terminations or connectors are necessary.

Long-haul Telecommunications
1. In public switched networks, regarding circuits that span long distances, such as the circuits in inter-LANA, interstate, and international communications.
2. In military use, communications among users on a national or worldwide basis. Long-haul communications are characterized by a higher level of users, more rigorous performance requirements, longer distances between users, including world wide distances, higher traffic volumes and densities, larger switches and trunk cross sections, and fixed and recoverable assets. Usually pertains to the U.S. Defense Communications System.

Long Wavelength
A commonly used term for light in the 1300 and 1550 nm ranges.

Longitudinal Modes
Oscillation modes of a laser along the length of its cavity. Each longitudinal mode contains only a narrow range of wavelengths, so a laser emitting a single longitudinal mode has a narrow bandwidth. Distinct from transverse modes.

Loose Tube
A protective tube loosely surrounding a cabled fiber, often filled with gel. A type of fiber optic cable construction where the fiber is contained within a loose tube in the cable jacket.

Loose Tube vs Tight Buffered
Fiber optic cables are constructed in two ways: loose tube and tight buffered. Both contain a type of strengthening member, such as aramid yarn, stainless steel wire strands, or gel-filled sleeves. Each, however, is designed for very different environments.

Loss
Attenuation of optical signal, normally measured in decibels. The amount of a signal’s power, expressed in dB, that is lost in connectors, splices, or fiber defects.

Loss Budget
An accounting of overall attenuation in a system.

LSZH
Primarily used for indoor applications, Low Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH) cable is designed to reduce toxic emissions in event of fire.

M

Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
An optical device that separates a series of optical channels so alternating wavelengths emerge out its two ports, sometimes called an interleaver.

Macrobending
In a fiber, all macroscopic deviations of the fiber’s axis from a straight line, that will cause light to leak out of the fiber, causing signal attenuation.

Mandrel Wrapping
In multimode fiber optics, a technique used to modify the modal distribution of a propagating optical signal.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
A telecommunication system serving a metropolitan area, typically with cable lengths to 200km. A network covering an area larger than a local area network. A series of local area networks, usually two or more, that cover a metropolitan area.

Margin
Allowance for attenuation in addition to that explicitly accounted for in a system design.

Mass Splicing
Splicing of many fibers in a cable.

Material Dispersion
Pulse dispersion caused by variation of a material's refractive index with wavelength.

Mechanical Splice
A splice in which fibers are joined mechanically (e.g., glued or crimped in place) but not fused together. An optical fiber splice accomplished by fixtures or materials, rather than by thermal fusion. The capillary splice, illustrated, is one example of a mechanical splice.

Mean Launched Power
The average power for a continuous valid symbol sequence coupled into a fiber.

Medium Access Control (MAC)
1) A service feature or technique used to permit or deny use of the components of a communication system.
2) A technique used to define or restrict the rights of individuals or application programs to obtain data from, or place data onto, a storage device, or the definition derived from that technique.

MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical systems)
Tiny moving mirrors fabricated from semiconductor materials.

Mesh
A network that makes multiple interconnections between different points.

Messenger Cable
The linear supporting member, usually a high strength steel wire, used as the supporting element of a suspended aerial cable. The messenger may be an integral part of the cable, or exterior to it.

Microbending
Tiny bends in a fiber that allow light to leak out and increase loss. Mechanical stress on a fiber that introduces local discontinuities,  which results in light leaking from the core to the cladding by a process called mode coupling.

Micrometer
One millionth of a meter or 10-6 meters. Abbreviated µm.

Microscope Fiber Optic Inspection
A microscope used to inspect the end surface of a connector for flaws or contamination or a fiber for cleave quality.

Microsecond
One millionth of a second or 10-6 seconds. Abbreviated µs.

Microwatt
One millionth of a Watt or 10-6 Watts. Abbreviated µW.

MIL-SPEC
Abbreviation for military specification. Performance specifications issued by the Department of Defense that must be met in order to pass a MIL-STD.

MIL-STD
Abbreviation for military standard. Standards issued by the Department of Defense.

Minimum Bend Radius
The smallest radius an optical fiber or fiber cable can bend before increased attenuation or breakage occurs.

Misalignment Loss
The loss of power resulting from angular misalignment, lateral displacement, and fiber end separation.

Modal Dispersion
Dispersion arising from differences in the times that different modes take to travel through multimode fiber.

Modal Noise
Noise that occurs whenever the optical power propagates through mode-selective devices. It is usually only a factor with laser light sources.

Mode
An electromagnetic field distribution that satisfied theoretical requirements for propagation in a waveguide or oscillation in a cavity (e.g., a laser). Light has modes in a fiber or laser. A single electromagnetic wave traveling in a fiber.

Mode Coupling
The transfer of energy between modes. In a fiber, mode coupling occurs until equilibrium mode distribution (EMD) is reached.

Mode Evolution
The dynamic process a multilongitudinal mode laser undergoes whereby the changing distribution of power among the modes creates a continuously changing envelope of the laser's spectrum.

Mode-Field Diameter (MFD)
The diameter of the one mode of light propagating in a single mode fiber, slightly larger than core diameter.

Mode Filter
A device that removes higher-order modes to simulate equilibrium mode distribution. A mode filter is most easily constructed.

Modem
Acronym for modulator/demodulator. 1) In general, a device that both modulates and demodulates signals. 2) In computer communications, a device used for converting digital signals into, and recovering them from, quasi-analog signals suitable for transmission over analog communications channels such as telephone lines.

Mode Scrambler
A device that mixes modes to uniform power distribution.

MH - Medium Haul (MH)
Abbreviation for medium-haul. A classification of video performance under RS-250C. Higher performance than long-haul and lower performance than short-haul.

Mode Stripper
A device that removes high-order modes in a multimode fiber to give standard measurement conditions. A device that removes cladding modes.

Modulation
The process by which the characteristic of one wave (the carrier) modifies another wave (the signal). Examples include amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM), and pulse-coded modulation (PCM).

Modulation Index
In an intensity-based system, the modulation index is a measure of how much the modulation signal affects the light output.

Modulator
A device that imposes a signal on a carrier.

MSO
Abbreviation for multiple service operator. A telecommunications company that offers more than one service, e.g. telephone service, Internet access, satellite service, etc.

MT Connector
Multi-fiber connector housing up to 24 fibers in a single ferrule.

MT RJ Connector
MT-RJ stands for Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack. MT-RJ is a fiber-optic cable connector that is very popular for small form factor devices due to its small size. Housing two fibers and mating together with locating pins on the plug, the MT-RJ comes from the MT connector, which can contain up to 12 fibers.

MU Connector
MU is a small form factor SC. It has the same push/pull style, but can fit 2 channels in the same footprint of a single SC. MU was developed by NTT.

Multilongitudinal Mode (MLM) Laser
An injection laser diode which has a number of longitudinal modes.

Multimode (Multi Mode)
Transmits or emits multiple modes of light. An optical waveguide with a much larger core (50µm +) than the singlemode waveguide core (2µm to 9µm) and which permits approximately 1,000 modes to propagate through the core compared to only one mode through a singlemode fiber.

Multimode Dispersion
Dispersion resulting from the different transit lengths of different propagating modes in a multimode optical fiber. Also called modal dispersion.

Multimode Fiber - MM
An optical fiber that has a core large enough to propagate more than one mode of light The typical diameter is 62.5 micrometers or 50 micrometers.

Multiple Reflection Noise (MRN)
The fiber optic receiver noise resulting from the interference of delayed signals from two or more reflection points in a fiber optic span. Also known as multipath interference.

Multiplexer
A device that combines two or more signals into a single output.

Multiplexing
The process by which two or more signals are transmitted over a single communications channel. Examples include time-division multiplexing (TDM) and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM).

MZ
Abbreviation for Mach-Zehnder, a structure used in fiber Bragg gratings and interferometers. Named for the two men who developed the underlying principles of the structure.

N

NA Mismatch Loss
The loss of power at a joint that occurs when the transmitting half has a numerical aperture greater than the NA of the receiving half. The loss occurs when coupling light from a source to fiber, from fiber to fiber, or from fiber to detector.

National Electric Code® (NEC)
A standard governing the use of electrical wire, cable and fixtures installed in buildings; developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), sponsored by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), identified by the description ANSI/NFPA 70-1990.

NCTA
Abbreviation for National Cable Television Association. The major trade association for the cable television industry.

NDSF - Non Dispersion-Shifted Fiber
The most popular type of single-mode fiber deployed. It is designed to have a zero-dispersion wavelength near 1310 nm.

NEXT , RN - Near-end Crosstalk (NEXT, RN)
The optical power reflected from one or more input ports, back to another input port. Also known as isolation directivity.

Near-Infrared
The part of the infrared near the visible spectrum, typically from 700 to 1500 or 2000nm; it is not rigidly defined.

NEMA
Abbreviation for National Electrical Manufacturers Association. Organization responsible for the standardization of electrical equipment, enabling consumers to select from a range of safe, effective, and compatible electrical products.

Near Field Scanning
A technique for measuring the refractive-index profile of an optical fiber by using an extended source to illuminate an endface and measuring the point-by-point radiance at the exit face.

Network
A system of cables or other connections that links many terminals or devices, all of which can communicate with each other through the system.

Network Topology
The specific physical, i.e., real, logical, or virtual, arrangement of the elements of a network. Common network topologies include a bus (or linear) topology, a ring topology, and a hybrid topology, which can be a combination of any two or more network topologies. Illustrated to the right is a bus topology utilizing tee couplers to connect a series of stations that listen to a single backbone of cable.

Neutral Density Coating
A coating that appears gray to the eye and has a flat absorption curve throughout the visible spectrum. Metals are generally used for this purpose.

Neutral Density Filter
Also known as a gray filter. A light filter that decreases the intensity of the light without altering the relative spectral distribution of the energy.

NF - Noise Figure (NF)
The ratio of the output signal-to-noise ratio to the input signal-to-noise ratio for a given element in a transmission system. Used for optical and electrical components.

NFPA
Abbreviation for National Fire Protection Association. Publisher of the National Electrical Code®, and 300 other codes and standards through a full, open-consensus process.

NIST
An acronym for National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Node
1) A terminal of any branch in network topology or an interconnection common to two or more branches in a network.
2) One of the switches forming the network backbone in a switch network.
3) A point in a standing or stationary wave at which the amplitude is a minimum.

Noise
1) An undesired disturbance within the frequency band of interest; the summation of unwanted or disturbing energy introduced into a communications system from man-made and natural sources.
2) A disturbance that affects a signal and that may distort the information carried by the signal.
3) Random variations of one or more characteristics of any entity such as voltage, current, or data.

Noise Equivalent Power (NEP)
The optical input power to a detector needed to generate an electrical signal equal to the inherent electrical noise.

No Return to Zero (NRZ)
A digital code in which the signal level is low for a 0 bit and high for a 1 bit and does not return to 0 between successive 1 bits.

Nonlinearity
The deviation from linearity in an electronic circuit, an electro-optic device or a fiber that generates undesired components in a signal. Examples of fiber nonlinearities include SBS, SRS, FWM, SPM, XPM, and Intermodulation.

Normal (angle)
Perpendicular to a surface.

NRZ
Abbreviation for nonreturn to zero. A common means of encoding data that has two states termed “zero” and “one” and no neutral or rest position.

NTSC
The analog video broadcast standard used in North America, set by the National Television System Committee.

Numerical Aperture (NA)
The sine of half the angle over which a fiber can accept light. Strictly speaking, this is multiplied by the refractive index of the medium containing the light, but for air the index is almost equal to 1. The light-gathering ability of a fiber; the maximum angle to the fiber axis at which light will be accepted and propagated through the fiber. NA = sin a, where a is the acceptance angle. NA also describes the angular spread of light from a central axis, as in exiting a fiber, emitting from a source, or entering a detector.

NZ-DSF - Nonzero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber (NZ-DSF)
Single mode fiber with the wavelength of zero chromatic dispersion shifted to just outside of the erbium-fiber amplifier region. Some types have zero dispersion near 1500nm, others near 1625nm. Types with zero dispersion at 1580nm are not usable in the L-band of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.

O

OADM - Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer
A device which adds or drops individual wavelengths from a DWDM system.

OAM
Abbreviation for operation, administration, and maintenance. Refers to telecommunications networks.

OAN
Abbreviation for optical access network. A network technology, based on passive optical networks (PONs), that includes an optical switch at the central office, an intelligent optical terminal at the customer’s premises, and a passive optical network between the two, allowing services providers to deliver fiber-to-the-home while eliminating the expensive electronics located outside the central office.

OCH - Optical Channel
An optical wavelength band for WDM optical communications.

OCx
Optical Carrier, a carrier rate specified in the SONET standard.

ODN
Abbreviation for optical distribution network. Term for optical networks being developed for interactive video, audio, and data distribution.

O/E
Abbreviation for optical-to-electrical converter. A device used to convert optical signals to electrical signals. Also known as OEC.

OEIC
Abbreviation for opto-electronic integrated circuit. An integrated circuit that includes both optical and electrical elements.

OEM
Abbreviation for original equipment manufacturer. The manufacturer of any device that is designed and built to be distributed under the label of another company.

OFNG
Optical Fiber Nonconductive General Purpose. Type OFNG cable must be resistant to the spread of fire and suitable for general-purpose use, with the exception of risers and plenums.

OFNP
Optical Fiber Nonconductive Plenum. Cable installed in ducts, plenums, and other spaces used for environmental air must be listed as having adequate fire-resistant and low-smoke producing characteristics.

OFNR
Optical Fiber Nonconductive Riser. Optical fiber cable used in vertical shafts, or in runs between floors, must have fire-resistant characteristics capable of preventing the spread of fire from floor-to-floor.

OLT
Abbreviation for optical line termination. Optical network elements that terminate a line signal.

OLTS
Abbreviation for optical loss test set. A source and optical power meter combined used to measure optical loss.

OMS
Abbreviation for optical multiplex section. A section of a DWDM system that incorporates an optical add/drop multiplexer.

ONI
Abbreviation for optical network interface. A device used in an optical distribution network to connect two parts of that network.

ONT
Abbreviation for optical network termination. Optical network element that terminates a line signal in installations where the fiber extends into the customer premises.

ONU
Abbreviation for optical network unit. A network element that is part of a fiber-in-the-loop system.

OOI
Abbreviation for open optical interface. A point at which an optical signal is passed from one equipment medium to another without conversion to an electrical signal.

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
Pertaining to the logical structure for communications networks standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Optical Amplifier
A device that amplifies an input optical signal without converting it into electrical form. The best developed are optical fibers doped with the rare-earth element erbium.

Optical Bandpass
The range of optical wavelengths which can be transmitted through a component.

Optical Channel
An optical signal transmitted at one wavelength. WDM systems transmit multiple channels at separate wavelengths.

Optical Channel Spacing
The wavelength separation between adjacent WDM channels.

Optical Channel Width
The optical wavelength range of a channel.

Optical Continuous Wave Reflectometer (OCWR)
An instrument used to characterize a fiber optic link wherein an unmodulated signal is transmitted through the link, and the resulting light scattered and reflected back to the input is measured. Useful in estimating component reflectance and link optical return loss.

Optical Circulator
A device that transmits light only in one direction through a series of ports, so light can go from port 1 to port 2 and port 2 to port 3, but not from port 2 to port 1.

Optical Directional Coupler (ODC)
A component used to combine and separate optical power.

Optical Fall Time
The time interval for the falling edge of an optical pulse to transition from 90% to 10% of the pulse amplitude. Alternatively, values of 80% and 20% may be used.

Optical Fiber
A glass or plastic fiber that has the ability to guide light along its axis. The three parts of an optical fiber are the core, the cladding, and the coating or buffer.

Optical Isolator
A component used to block out reflected and unwanted light. Also called an isolator.

Optical Link Loss Budget
The range of optical loss over which a fiber optic link will operate and meet all specifications. The loss is relative to the transmitter output power and affects the required receiver input power.

Optical Networking
Processing and switching signals in optical form as well as transmitting them optically.

Optical Node
The point where signals are transferred from optical fibers to other transmission media, typically twisted-pair wires or coaxial cable.

Optical Path Power Penalty
The additional loss budget required to account for degradations due to reflections, and the combined effects of dispersion resulting from intersymbol interference, mode-partition noise, and laser chirp.

Optical Performance Monitor
A device installed in a WDM system to monitor signals at the transmitted wavelengths.

Optical Power Meter
An instrument that measures the amount of optical power present at the end of a fiber or cable.

Optical Pump Laser
A shorter wavelength laser used to pump a length of fiber with energy to provide amplification at one or more longer wavelengths. See also EDFA.

Optical Return Loss (ORL)
The ratio (expressed in dB) of optical power reflected by a component or an assembly to the optical power incident on a component port when that component or assembly is introduced into a link or system.

Optical Rise Time
The time interval for the rising edge of an optical pulse to transition from 10% to 90% of the pulse amplitude. Alternatively, values of 20% and 80% may be used.

Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA)
An instrument that scans the spectrum to record power as a function of wavelength.

Optical Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (OSNR)
The optical equivalent of SNR.

Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)
An instrument that measures transmission characteristics by sending a short pulse of light down a fiber and observing back-scattered light.

Optical Waveguide
Technically, any structure that can guide light. Sometimes used as a synonym for optical fiber, it can also apply to planar light waveguides.

Outside Plant (OSP)
In telephony, all cables, conduits, ducts, poles, towers, repeaters, repeater huts, and other equipment located between a demarcation point in a switching facility and a demarcation point in another switching facility or customer premises.

Overfilled Launch
A condition for launching light into the fiber where the incoming light has a spot size and NA larger than accepted by the fiber, filling all modes in the fiber.

OXC
Abbreviation for optical cross-connect. See cross-connect.

P

PABX
Abbreviation for private automatic branch exchange. See PBX.

Packet
In data communications, a sequence of binary digits, including data and control signals, that is transmitted and switched as a composite whole. The packet contains data, control signals, and possibly error control information, arranged in a specific format.

Packet Switching
Organizing signals by dividing then into data packets, each containing a header that specifies its destination and a packet of data intended for that destination. Separate data packets then are directed to their destinations.

PAL
Abbreviation for phase alternation by line. A composite color standard used in many parts of the world for TV broadcast. The phase alternation makes the signal relatively immune to certain distortions (compared to NTSC). Delivers 625 lines at 50 frames per second. PAL-plus is an enhanced-definition version.

Panda Fiber
Panda is a common style of PM fiber, using round and symetrical stress rods on either side of the core to induce polarization.

Parabolic Profile
In an optical fiber, a power-law index profile with the profile parameter, g, equal to. Synonym: quadratic profile.

Passband
The region of usable frequency in electronics or wavelength in optics.

Passive Branching Device
A device which divides an optical input into two or more optical outputs.

Passive Component
A component that doesn't require outside power.

Passive Device
Any device that does not require a source of energy for its operation. Examples include electrical resistors or capacitors, diodes, optical fiber (photo), cable, wires, glass, lenses, and filters.

Pay-Per-View (PPV)
An event that has an associated viewing cost, and which may be purchased separately from any package or subscription. The ordered events could include movies, special events, such as sporting, or adult programming. The event could be purchased by either impulse PPV by using a television remote (this application requires a continuous land line phone based connection), or over the phone PPV (this application may have additional costs for processing).

Passive Optical Network
A fiber-optic distribution network with no active components between the switching point and the customer.

PBX
Abbreviation for private branch exchange. A subscriber-owned telecommunications exchange that usually includes access to public switched networks.

PC (Fiber Connector Polish)
Abbreviation for physical contact. Refers to an optical connector that allows the fiber ends to physically touch. Used to minimize backreflection and insertion loss.

PCS Fiber - Plastic Clad Silica
Also called hard clad silica (HCS). A step-index fiber with a glass core and plastic or polymer cladding instead of glass.

Peak Power
Highest instantaneous power level in a pulse.

Peak Wavelength
In optical emitters, the spectral line having the greatest output power. Also called peak emission wavelength.

PFM
Abbreviation for pulse-frequency modulation. Also referred to as square wave FM.

Phase
The position of a wave in its oscillation cycle.

Phase Constant
The imaginary part of the axial propagation constant for a particular mode, usually expressed in radians per unit length. See also attenuation.

Phase Noise
Rapid, short-term, random fluctuations in the phase of a wave caused by time-domain instabilities in an oscillator.

Phase-shift Keying (PSK)
1) In digital transmission, angle modulation in which the phase of the carrier discretely varies in relation, either to a reference phase or to the phase of the immediately preceding signal element, in accordance with data being transmitted.
2) In a communications system, the representation of characters, such as bits or quaternary digits, by a shift in the phase of an electromagnetic carrier wave with respect to a reference, by an amount corresponding to the symbol being encoded. Also called biphase modulation, phase-shift signaling.

Photoconductive
Losing an electrical charge on exposure to light.

Photodetector
An optoelectronic transducer such as a PIN photodiode or avalanche photodiode. In the case of the PIN diode, it is so named because it is constructed from materials layered by their positive, intrinsic, and negative electron regions.

Photodiode - PD
A diode that can produce an electrical signal proportional to light falling upon it.

Photonic
A term coined for devices that work using photons or light, analogous to "electronic" for devices working with electrons.

Photovoltaic
Providing an electric current under the influence of light or similar radiation.

Photons
Quanta of electromagnetic radiation. Light can be viewed as either a wave or a series of photons.

Pigtail
A short optical fiber permanently attached to a source, detector, or other fiber optic device at one end and an optical connector at the other.

pin Photodiode
A semiconductor detector with an intrinsic (i) region separating the p- and n-doped regions. It has fast linear response an is used in fiber-optic receivers.

Planar Waveguide
A flat waveguide formed on the surface of a flat material. The zone of high refractive index is rectangular in cross-section and guides light in the same way as the core of an optical fiber.

Plastic-Clad Silica (PCS) Fiber
A step-index multimode fiber in which a silica core is surrounded by a lower-index plastic cladding.

Plastic Optical Fiber (POF)
An optical fiber made entirely of plastic compounds. Optical fibers in which both the core and cladding are made of plastic material. Typically their transmission is much poorer than that of glass fibers, and their lowest losses are in the visible region.

PLC
Abbreviation for planar lightwave circuit. A device which incorporates a planar waveguide.

Plenum
An air-handling space such as that found above drop ceiling tiles or in raised floors. Also, a fire code rating for indoor cable.

Plenum Cable
Cable made of fire-retardent material that meets electrical code requirements (UL 910) for low smoke generation and installation in air spaces.

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)
The North American Digital Hierarchy of time-division multiplexing rates.

Point-to-Point Transmission
Carrying a signal between two points, without branching to other points.

Polyethylene (PE)
A type of plastic material used for outside plant cable jackets.

Polyvinyl-chloride (PVC)
A type of plastic material used for cable jacketing. Typically used in flame-retardant cables.

PVDF (Kynar®)
Abbreviation used to denote polyvinyldifluoride. A type of material used for cable jacketing.

Polarization
Alignment of the electric and magnetic fields that make up an electromagnetic wave; normally refers to the electric field. If all light waves have the same alignment, the light is polarized.

Polarization Maintaining Fiber (PM Fiber)
Fibers that maintains the polarization of light that enters it.

Polarization Dependent Loss
In passive optical components, loss that varies as the polarization state of the propagating wave changes. Expressed as the difference between the maximum and minimum loss in decibels.

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)
Dispersion arising from random fluctuations in how fibers transmit light in vertical and horizontal polarizations.

Polishing
The optical process, following grinding, that puts a highly finished, smooth and apparently amorphous surface on a lens or a mirror.

Polishing and Abrasive Material
Any of the numerous powders used for grinding and polishing glass, crystal or metal, the chief material being emery and carborundum for grinding, and rouge or the oxides of tin, cerium or other metals for polishing.

Polishing Jig
In fiber optics, a device used to polish a biconic plug to a specified length and surface finish. Also called a polishing disc.

PON
Abbreviation for passive optical network. A broadband fiber optic access network that uses a means of sharing fiber to the home without running individual fiber optic lines from an exchange point, telco CO, or a CATV headend and the subscriber’s home.

POP (Point of Presence)

POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)
Analog voice telephone line.

p-p
Abbreviation for peak-to-peak. The algebraic difference between extreme values of a varying quantity.

Preform
A cylindrical rod of specially prepared and purified glass from which an optical fiber is drawn.

Precision Sleeve Splicing
Optical fiber splicing that uses a capillary tube, of suitable material, to align the mating fibers.
 
Profile Dispersion
Dispersion attributed to the variation of refractive index contrast with wavelength.

ps
Abbreviation for picosecond. One trillionth of a second or 10-12 seconds.

Pulling Eye
A pulling eye is a device fastened to a fiber cable to which a hook may be attached in order to pull the cable through a duct or small space.

Pulse
A current or voltage which changes abruptly from one value to another and back to the original value in a finite length of time. Used to describe one particular variation in a series of wave motions. The parts of the pulse include the rise time, fall time, and pulse width, pulse amplitude. The period of a pulse refers to the amount of time between pulses.

Pulse-code Modulation (PCM)
A technique in which an analog signal, such as a voice, is converted into a digital signal by sampling the signal's amplitude and expressing the different amplitudes as a binary number. The sampling rate must be at least twice the highest frequency in the signal.

Pulse Dispersion
The Spreading out of pulses as they travel along an optical fiber.

Public Switched Networks (PSN)
1. Any common carrier network that provides circuit switching among public users.
2. A switched network accessible to the public for originating and terminating telecommunications messages.
3. Any common carrier switched network, whether by wire or radio, including local exchange carriers, interexchange carriers, and mobile service providers, that use the North American Numbering Plan in common with provision of switched services.

Pump Laser
The semiconductor laser that provides the light that excites atoms in a fiber amplifier, putting them in the right state to amplify light. A power source for signal amplification, typically a 980 nm or 1480 nm laser, used in EDFA applications.

pW
Abbreviation for picowatt. One trillionth of a Watt or 10-12 Watts.

Q

QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation.
A coding technique that uses many discrete digital levels to transmit data with minimum bandwidth. QAM256 uses 256 discrete levels to transmit digitized video.

QDST
Abbreviation for quaternary dispersion supported transmission. See DST.

QoS - Quality of Service
1. The performance specification of a communications channel or system which may be quantitatively indicated by channel or system performance parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio, bit error rate, message throughput rate, and call blocking probability.
2. A subjective rating of telephone communications quality in which listeners judge transmissions by qualifiers such as excellent, good, fair, poor, or unsatisfactory.

Quadrature Phase-shift Keying (QPSK)
Phase-shift keying uses four different phase angles out of phase by 90°. Also called quadriphase or quaternary phase-shift keying.

Quantization
The process of converting the voltage level of a signal into digital data before or after the signal has been sampled.

Quantizing Error
Inaccuracies in the digital representation of an analog signal. These errors occur because of limitations in the resolution of the digitizing process.

Quantizing Noise
Noise which results from the quantization process. In serial digital video, a granular type of noise that occurs only in the presence of a signal.

Quantum Efficiency
The fraction of photons that strike a detector that produces electron-hole paris in the output current.

Quaternary
A semiconductor compound made of four elements. (e.g., InGaAsP).

Quaternary Signal
A digital signal having four significant conditions.

R

Radiation-hardened Fiber
An optical fiber made with core and cladding materials that are designed to recover their intrinsic value of attenuation coefficient, within an acceptable time period, after exposure to a radiation pulse.

Radiometer
An instrument, distinct from a photometer, to measure power (watts) of electromagnetic radiation.

Raman Amplifier
A fiber that transfers energy from a strong pump beam to amplify a weaker signal at a longer wavelength, using stimulated Raman scattering.

Random Jitter (RJ)
Random jitter is due to thermal noise and may be modeled as a Gaussian process. The peak-to-peak value of RJ is of a probabilistic nature, and thus any specific value requires an associated probability.

Rare Earth Doped Fiber
An optical fiber in which ions of a rare-earth element, such as neodymium, erbium or holmium, have been incorporated into the glass core matrix, yielding high absorption with low loss in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions.

Rayleigh Scattering
The scattering of light that results from small inhomogeneities of material density or composition.

Rays
Lines that represent the path taken by light.

Receiver
A device that detects an optical signal and converts it into an electrical form usable by other devices.

Receive Cable
A known good fiber optic jumper cable attached to a power meter used as a reference cable for loss testing. This cable must be made of fiber and connectors of a matching type to the cables to be tested.

Receiver Overload
The maximum acceptable value of average received power for an acceptable BER or performance.

Receiver Sensitivity
The minimum acceptable value of received power needed to achieve an acceptable BER or performance. It takes into account power penalties caused by use of a transmitter with worst-case values of extinction ratio, jitter, pulse rise times and fall times, optical return loss, receiver connector degradations, and measurement tolerances. The receiver sensitivity does not include power penalties associated with dispersion, or backreflections from the optical path; these effects are specified separately in the allocation of maximum optical path penalty. Sensitivity usually takes into account worst-case operating and end-of-life (EOL) conditions.

Recombination
Combination of an electron and a hole in a semiconductor that releases energy, sometimes leading to light emission.

Refraction
The bending of light as it passes between materials of different refractive index.

Refractive Index
The speed of light in a vacuum divided by the speed of light in a material, abbreviated n, which measures how materials refract light.

Refractive-Index Gradient
The change of refractive index with distance from the axis of an optical fiber. Also called refractive index profile.

Regenerator
A receiver-transmitter pair that detects a weak signal, cleans it up, then sends the regenerated signal through another length of fiber.

Repeater
A receiver-transmitter pair that detects and amplifies a weak signal for retransmission through another length of optical fiber.

Responsivity
The ratio of detector output to input, usually measured in units of amperes per watt (or microampers per microwatt).

Residual Loss
The loss of the attenuator at the minimum setting of the attenuator.

Return Loss
See optical return loss.

Return Path
A communications connection that carries signals from the subscriber back to the operator. The return path allows for interactive television and on-demand services, such as pay-per-view, video on demand, and interactive games.

Return to Zero (RZ)
A digital coding scheme where signal level is low for a 0 bit and high for a 1 bit during the first half of a bit interval and then in either case returns to zero for the second half of the bit interval.

RF
Abbreviation for radio frequency. Any frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum normally associated with radio wave propagation.

RF Carrier
An AM technique wherein a carrier, with a frequency much higher than the encoded information, varies according to the amplitude of the information being encoded.

RFI
Abbreviation for radio frequency interference. Synonym for electromagnetic interference.

Ribbon Cables
Cables in which many parallel fibers are embedded in a plastic material, forming a flat ribbon-like structure.

RIN
Abbreviation for relative intensity noise. Often used to quantify the noise characteristics of a laser.

Ring
A cable that forms a closed loop connecting two or more points, so all points remain connected if the cable breaks at one point.

Ring Network
A network topology in which terminals are connected in a point-to-point serial fashion in an unbroken circular configuration.

Rip Cord
Of an optical cable, a parallel cord of strong yarn that is situated under the jacket(s) of the cable for the purpose of facilitating jacket removal preparatory to splicing or breaking out.

Riser
A pathway for indoor cables that pass between floors, normally a vertical shaft or space. Also a fire-code rating for indoor cable.

Rise Time
The time it takes output to rise from low levels to peak value. Typically measured as the time to rise from 10% to 90% of maximum output.

RJ 45
RJ-45 is the 8-conductor version of an RJ-11. It looks like a regular modular phone connector, only it's wider. You need to use RJ-45 for Ethernet, because the connection standard puts the Ethernet on some of the outer connectors not in RJ-11. RJ-11 plugs will fit into an RJ-45 socket, but because the plastic plug is smaller, some of the contacts will get bend back a little more.

Router
A device that directs data packets to their destinations using information in their headers to pick the best path. Distinct from wavelength router.

RTS
Abbreviation for request to send. In a communications network, a signal from a remote receiver to a transmitter for data to be sent to that receiver.

Ruby Laser
The optically pumped, solid-state laser that uses sapphire as the host lattice and chromium as the active ion. The emission takes place in the red portion of the spectrum.

RZ
Abbreviation for return to zero. A common means of encoding data that has two information states called “zero” and “one” in which the signal returns to a rest state during a portion of the bit period.

S

Sampling Rate
The number of discrete sample measurements made in a given period of time. Often expressed in megahertz (MHz) for video.

SAN (Storage Area Network)
Connects a group of computers to high-capacity storage devices. May be incorporated into local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN), and wide area networks (WAN).

Saturation
1) In a communications system, the condition in which a component of the system has reached its maximum traffic handling capacity.
2) The point at which the output of a linear device, such as a linear amplifier, deviates significantly from being a linear function of the input when the input signal is increased.
3) The degree of the chroma or purity of a color.

S-Band
A proposed designation for wavelengths of 1460 to 1530nm, where optical amplifiers based on thulium-doped fibers are in development.

SC Connector
Abbreviation for subscription channel connector. A push-pull type of optical connector that features high packing density, low loss, low backreflection, and low cost.

Scattering
Loss of light that is scattered off atoms in different directions, so it escapes from the fiber core. A major component of fiber attenuation.

S-CDMA
Abbreviation for synchronous code division multiple access. A synchronized version of CDMA.

Scoring
The cutting of pitch tooling surfaces by an optical technician to permit polishing compounds to flow across the surface of the tool.

Scrambler
1) A device that transposes or inverts signals or otherwise encodes a message at the transmitter to make the message unintelligible at a receiver not equipped with an appropriately set descrambling device. Scramblers usually use a fixed algorithm or mechanism.
2) A device intended to normalize the duty cycle of a data stream to be close to 50%.

Scratch
A defect on a polished optical surface whose length is many times its width. Block reek is a chainlike scratch formed in polishing. A runner cut is a curved scratch caused by grinding. A sleek is a hairline scratch. A crush or rub is a surface scratch or scratches usually caused by mishandling.

Self-phase modulation (SPM)
A fiber nonlinearity caused by the nonlinear index of refraction of glass. The index of refraction varies with optical power level causing a frequency chirp which interacts with the fiber’s dispersion to broaden the pulse.

Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA)
A laser diode without end mirrors coupled to the fibers on both ends. Light coming in either fiber is amplified by a single pass through the laser diode. An alternative to EDFAs.

SFP Loopback
An small form factor test fixture used loop an electrical signal from the Tx side of a port to the Rx side of a port, prior to population with an optical transceiver.

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
The international version of SONET, the Synchronous Optical Network Standard. The biggest difference is in the names of the transmission rates.

Selfoc Lens
A trade name used by Nippon Sheet Glass Company (NSG) for a graded-index fiber lens; a segment of graded-index fibers made to serve as lens.

Semiconductor Laser
A laser in which injection of current into a semiconductor diode produces light by recombination of holes and electrons at the junction between p- and n-doped regions.

SH
Abbreviation for short-haul. A classification of video performance under RS-250B/C. Higher performance than long-haul or medium-haul.

Sheath
An outer protective layer of a fiber optic cable. Also called the cable jacket.

Short Wavelength
A commonly used term for light in the 665, 790, and 850 nm ranges.

Si
Abbreviation for silicon. Generally used in detectors. Good for short wavelengths only (e.g., < 1000 nm).

Silica
Silicon dioxide (SiO2).

SI Units
The standard international system of metric units.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
The ratio of signal to noise, measured in decibels; an indication of analog signal quality.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
The Internet standard protocol for network management software. It monitors devices on the network, and gathers device performance data for management information data bases (MIB).

Silica Glass
Glass made mostly of silicon dioxide, SiO2, used in conventional optical fibers.

Simplex
Single element (e.g., a simplex connector is a single-fiber connector).

Simplex Cable
A term sometimes used for a single-fiber cable.

Single-Frequency Laser
A laser that emits a range of wavelengths small enough to be considered a single frequency.

Single-longitudinal Mode Laser (SLM)
An injection laser diode which has a single dominant longitudinal mode. A single-mode laser with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR)< 25 dB.

Single Mode
Containing only one mode. When dealing with lasers, beware of ambiguities because of the difference between transverse and longitudinal modes. A laser operating in a single transverse mode typically does not operate in a single longitudinal mode. A type of low-loss optical waveguide with a very small core (2-9 microns). It requires a laser source for input signals because of the very small entrance aperture. The smallest of the core radius approaches the wavelength of the source. Consequently, only a singlemode is propagated.

Single Mode Fiber (SMF)
A small-core optical fiber through which only one mode will propagate. The typical diameter is 8-9 microns.

Single Polarization Fiber
Optical fibers capable of carrying light in only one polarization.

Slab Dielectric Waveguide
An electromagnetic waveguide (a) that consists solely of dielectric materials, (b) in which the dielectric propagation medium has a rectangular cross section, (c) that has a width, thickness, and refractive indices that determine the operating wavelength and the modes the guide will support beyond the equilibrium length, (d) that may be cladded, protected, distributed, and electronically controllable, and (e) that may be used in various applications, such as in integrated optical circuits (IOCs) in which their shape is geometrically more convenient than the optical fibers that are circular in cross section, that are used in fiber optic cables for long-distance transmission.

Slurry
The name of the mixture of liquid and grinding or polishing compounds used in processing optical materials.

SMA
A threaded type of optical connector. One of the earliest optical connectors to be widely used. Offers poor repeatability and performance.

SM Zipcord Fiber
Zipcord (or zip-cord) is a two fiber cable essentially with two single-fiber cables conjoined by their jackets. The jacket strip can be easily separated from one another for the installation of optical connectors. Zip cord cables may include both loose-buffer and tight-buffer designs.

Soliton
An optical pulse that naturally retains its original shape as it travels along an optical fiber.

Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
A standard for fiber-optic transmission. Abbreviation for synchronous optical network transport system. An interface standard widely used by the telecom industry where OC-3 is the lowest current rate (155.5 Mb/s), and OC-768 is the highest rate being contemplated (39.808 Gb/s). Valid rates increase by a factor of four from the OC-3 rate up to OC-768.

Source
In fiber optics, a transmitting LED or laser diode, or an instrument that injects test signals into fibers.

Span Engineering
The process of designing a DWDM transmission span to achieve the required performance based on fiber type, the transmission distance, amplifier spacing, noise, power, and channel count.

Spectral Efficiency
The number of data bits per second that can be transmitted in a one Hertz bandwidth range.

Spectral Width
A measure of the extent of a spectrum. For a source, the width of wavelengths contained in the output at one half of the wavelength of peak power. Typical spectral widths are 50 to 160 nm for an LED and less than 5 nm for a laser diode.

Spectral Width, Full Width, Half Maximum (FWHM)
The absolute difference between the wavelengths at which the spectral radiant intensity is 50 percent of the maximum power.

Splice
A permanent junction between two fiber ends.

Splice Organizer
In optical communication, a device that facilitates the splicing or breaking out of fiber optic cables.

Splice Tray
A container that prevents spliced fibers from becoming damaged or being misplaced.

Splitter
see Coupler.

Splitting Ratio
The ratio of power emerging from output ports of a coupler.

ST Connector
Abbreviation for straight tip connector. Popular fiber optic connector originally developed by AT&T.

Stainless Steel Cable
A fiber optic cable with flexible stainless steel jacketing for increased fiber protection

Standard Single Mode Fiber
Step-index single mode fiber with zero dispersion at 1310nm; the first type used in fiber optic communications, still widely used.

Star Coupler
A coupler with more than three or four ports.

Star Network
A network in which all terminals are connected through a single point, such as a star coupler or concentrator.

Steady State Modal Distribution
Equilibrium modal distribution (EMD) in multimode fiber, achieved some distance from the source, where the relative power in the modes becomes stable with increasing distance.

Strain Relief
A Method of controlling the bend of a fiber as it exits the connector. Available in various sized depending on the cable size. 900um, 1.6mm, 2.0mm, and 3.0mm, or even the Timbercon Armadillo cable (custom integrated boot shell design).

Strength Member
The part of a fiber optic cable composed of aramid yarn, steel strands, or fiberglass filaments that increase the tensile strength of the cable.

Step-Index
An optical fiber, either multimode or singlemode, in which the core refractive index is uniform throughout so that a sharp step in refractive index occurs at the core-to-cladding interface. It usually refers to a multimode fiber. Such fibers have a large numerical aperture, are simple to connect, but have lower bandwidth than other types of optical fibers.

Step-Index Multimode Fiber
A step-index fiber with a core large enough to carry light in multiple modes.

Step-Index Single-Mode Fiber
A step-index fiber with a small core capable of carrying light in only one mode; this type has zero dispersion at 1310nm.

Stimulated Raman Scattering
Interactions between light and atoms in a transparent material that convert energy from one wavelength to another.

Subscriber Loop
The part of the telephone network from a central office to individual subscribers.

Submarine Cable
A cable designed to be laid underwater.

Surface-Emitting Diode (SLED)
An LED that emits light from its flat surface rather than its side. Simple and inexpensive, with emission spread of a wide angle.

Surface-Emitting Laser
A semiconductor laser that emits light from the wafer surface.

Switch
A device that directs light or electricity along different paths, such as fibers or wires.

Switched Network
A network that routes signals to their destinations by switching circuits, such as the telephone system.

Synchronous
A data signal that is sent along with a clock signal. A system in which events, such as signals, occur at evenly spaced time durations. Opposite of asynchronous.

T

T1
In telecommunications, the cable used to transport DS1 service.

Talkset (fiber optic)
A communication device that allows conversation over unused fibers.

Tap Loss
In a fiber optic coupler, the ratio of power at the tap port to the power at the input port.

Tap Port
In a coupler where the splitting ratio between output ports is not equal, the output port containing the lesser power.

Tbit/s
Terabits (trillion, or 1012 bits) per second.

T Carrier
A system transmitting signals at one of the standard levels in the North American digital hierarchy.

TCP/IP
Abbreviation for transmission control protocol/Internet protocol. Two interrelated protocols that are part of the Internet protocol suite. TCP operates on the OSI transport layer and breaks data into packets. IP operates on the OSI network layer and routes packets. Originally developed by the U.S. Department of Defense.

T Coupler
A coupler with three ports.

TEC (TE Cooler)
Abbreviation for thermoelectric cooler. A device used to dissipate heat in electronic assemblies.

Telecommunications Management Network (TMN)
A network that interfaces with a telecommunications network at several points in order to receive information from, and to control the operation of, the telecommunications network.

Termination
Preparation of the end of a fiber to allow connection to another fiber or an active device, sometimes also called "connectorization".

Termination and Splicing
Termination and splicing equipment for fiber optics include tools or kits for cutting, finishing, positioning, aligning and joining fiber optic cables.

Terminating
Terminating a fiber is accomplished through preparing the fiber for connection to another fiber or device such as a connector. The goal when terminating is to produce a perfect end to the fiber. The end should be cleanly cut, clear and physically connected to the receiving optical device. This can be accomplished through two means; permanently joining the fibers by welding or gluing the ends of the fiber together, or mechanically aligning the fibers and joining them with transparent gel.

Test Cable
A short single fiber jumper cable with connectors on both ends used for testing. This cable must be made of fiber and connectors of a matching type to the cables to be tested.

Test Kit
A kit of fiber optic instruments, typically including a power meter, source and test accessories used for measuring loss and power.

Test Source
A laser diode or LED used to inject an optical signal into fiber for testing loss of the fiber or other components.

Thermal Noise
Noise resulting from thermally induced random fluctuation in current in the receiver’s load resistance.

Thermo-Optic Switches
Optical switches controlled by temperature-induced changes in refractive index.

Threshold Current
The minimum current needed to sustain laser action in a diode laser.

Throughput Loss
In a fiber optic coupler, the ratio of power at the throughput port to the power at the input port.

Throughput Port
In a coupler where the splitting ratio between output ports is not equal, the output port containing the greater power.

TIA
An acronym for Telecommunications Industry Association.

TICL
Abbreviation for temperature induced cable loss. Optical loss as a result of extreme temperatures outside a fiber optic cable’s environmental specifications.

Tight Buffer
A material tightly surrounding a fiber in a cable, holding it rigidly in place.

Tight Buffered Cable
A protective coating extruded tightly over fiber for mechanical and environmental protection. The coating material is either nylon or PVC. This buffering offers excellent physical and flexing properties, but higher micro-bending sensitivity.

Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM)
Digital multiplexing by taking one bit or byte of data at a time from separate signals and combining them in a single bit stream.

Token Ring
A ring-based network scheme in which a token is used to control access to a network. Used by IEEE 802.5 and FDDI.

Total Internal Reflection
Total reflection of light back into a material when it strikes the interface with a material having a lower refractive index at an angle below a critical value.

Transceiver
A combination of transmitter and receiver providing both output and input interfaces with a device.

Transverse Modes
Modes across the width of a waveguide, fiber or laser. Distinct from longitudinal modes, which are along he length of a laser.

Transducer
A device that converts energy from one form to another, such as optical energy to electrical energy.

Transmitter
A device that includes a source and driving electronics. It functions as an electrical-to-optical converter.

Transponder
The part of a satellite that receives and transmits a signal.

Traveling Wave
A wave that (a) propagates in a transmission medium, (b) has a velocity determined by the launching conditions and the physical properties of the medium, and (c) may be a longitudinal or transverse wave.

Tray
A unit or assembly of units or sections, and associated fittings, made of metal or other noncombustible materials forming a rigid structural system used to support cables. Includes ladders, troughs, channels, solid bottom trays, and similar structures.

Tree
A network architecture in which transmission routes branch out from a central point.

Trunk
1) In a communications network, a single transmission channel between two switching centers or nodes, or both.
2) A circuit between switchboards or other switching equipment, as distinguished from circuits which extend between central office switching equipment and information origination/termination equipment. Trunks may be used to interconnect switches, such as major, minor, public and private switches, to form networks.

Trunk Line
A transmission line running between telephone switching offices or from a cable-TV head end to a distribution node.

Twisted-Pair
Pair of copper wires twisted around each other. The standard way to connect individual voice telephones, widely used for other low-speed communications.

U

UL
Abbreviation for Underwriter’s Laboratory. An organization that tests product safety for a wide variety of products. UL approved products carry UL symbol.

Ultraviolet (UV)
Electromagnetic waves invisible to the human eye, with wavelengths about 10 to 400nm, shorter than visible light.

Unidirectional
Operating in one direction only.

UPC (Ultra Physical Contact)
Specific to singlemode applications, referring to the endface geometry of a connector ferrule as well as performance characteristics (-55dB Return Loss).

UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pair.

V

VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser)
A semiconductor laser in which light oscillate vertically (perpendicular to the junction plane) and light emerges from the surface of the waver rather than from the edge of the chip.

VDSL
Abbreviation for very high data rate digital subscriber line. A DSL operating at a data rate higher than that of HDSL. See also DSL.

Visible Light
Electromagnetic radiation visible to the human eye at wavelengths of 400 to 700nm.

Visual Fault Locator
A device that couples visible light into the fiber to allow visual tracing and testing of continuity. Some are bright enough to allow finding breaks in fiber through the cable jacket.

Virtual Circuit (VC)
A communications arrangement in which data from a source user may be passed to a destination user over various real circuit configurations during a single period of communication, usually on a per call basis, although permanent connections can be established.

VOA (Variable Optical Attenuator)
An attenuator in which the attenuation can be varied.

Voice Circuit
A circuit capable of carrying one telephone conversation or its equivalent; the standard subunit in which telecommunication is counted. The US analog equivalent is 4kHz, the digital equivalent is 64 kbit/s.

VPN
Abbreviation for virtual private network. A protected information-system link utilizing tunneling, security controls, and end-point address translation giving the end user the impression that a dedicated line exists between nodes.

W

WAN
Wide area network. A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. The term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a local area network (LAN). A wide area network may be privately owned or rented, but the term usually connotes the inclusion of public (shared user) networks. An intermediate form of network in terms of geography is a metropolitan area network (MAN).

Waveguide
A structure that guides electromagnetic waves along its length. An optical fiber is an optical waveguide.

Waveguide Array
An array of curved planar waveguides that separates many optical channels at once. Also called Array Waveguide (AWG).

Waveguide Coupler
A coupler in which light gets transferred between planar waveguides.

Waveguide Dispersion
The part of chromatic dispersion arising from the different speeds light travels in the core and cladding of a single mode fiber (i.e., from the fiber's waveguide structure).

Wavelength
The distance an electromagnetic wave travels in the time it takes to oscillate through a complete cycle. Wavelengths of light are measured in nanometers (10-9 m) or micrometers (10-6m).

Wavelength Division Multiplexing(WDM)
Multiplexing of signals by transmitting them at different wavelengths through the same fiber.

Wavelength Adapter
A device which receives one wavelength and outputs a second wavelength, usually to take a standard signal and convert it to an ITU wavelength.

Wavelength Isolation
A WDM’s isolation of a light signal in the desired optical channel from the unwanted optical channels. Also called far-end crosstalk.

Wavelength Router
An optical device that directs input signals according to their wavelength.

Wavelength Routing Switch (WRS)
A switch, used in optical networks, that routes wavelengths as required to specific terminals in the network.

Wavelength Selective Coupler
A device which couples the pump laser wavelength to the optical fiber while filtering out all other unwanted wavelengths. Used in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.

Wideband
Possessing large bandwidth.

Window
A wavelength region where fibers have low attenuation, used for transmitting signals.

Working Margin
The difference (in dB) between the power budget and the loss budget (i.e. the excess power margin).

X

X-Band
The frequency range between 8.0 and 8.4 GHz.

X-Series Recommendations
Sets of data telecommunications protocols and interfaces defined by the ITU.

Y

Y Coupler
A variation on the tee coupler in which input light is split between two channels (typically planar waveguide) that branch out like a Y from the input.

Z

Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber
Fiber with zero chromatic dispersion shifted to 1550nm, used before the advent of DWDM.

Zero-Dispersion Wavelength
Wavelength at which net chromatic dispersion of an optical fiber is nominally zero. Arises where waveguide dispersion cancels out material dispersion.

Zipcord (Zip Cord)
A two-fiber cable consisting of two single fiber cables having conjoined jackets. A zipcord cable can be easily divided by slitting and pulling the conjoined jackets apart.

Zip Cord Fiber
Two-fiber cable with two single fiber cables having conjoined jackets. The zipcord cable can be easily divided by slitting and pulling the conjoined jackets apart. Zip cord cables include both loose-buffer and tight-buffer designs.

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